30 terms

AP Human Geography- Unit 2, First Set of 30

Millard South High School
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demography
the study of population such as it's economy, education, family size, education, household income, race, gender, occupation, and age.
overpopulation
refers to when an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. In common parlance, the term usually refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the earth.
ecumene
term used by geographers to mean inhabited land. It generally refers to land where people have made their permanent home
crude/arithmetic density
total number of objects in an area. Used to compare distribution of population in different countries.
physiological density
number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture. Could mean a country has difficulty growing enough food.
agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
CBR
(Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society. This is important because it tells you the rate a country is having babies as well as how fast you can expect that population to grow
CDR
(Crude death rate) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
NIR
(rate of natural increase) the percentage by which a population grows in a year. CBR-CDR=NIR (Affects the population and a country's or area's ability to support that population)
doubling time
The time it takes a population to double in size from any given numerical point. A country with a 2% growth rate will see its population double in 35 years; one with a 4 % growth rate will double in 17 years.
TFR
(total fertility rate) The number of births that 1,000 women would have if the current year's age-specific birth rate remained constant throughout their childbearing years
IMR
(infant mortality rate) The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Its is expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage. This is important because it tell how developed a country is, if they have a high IMR they are an LDC and if it is low they are an MDC.
Life expectancy
The average number of years people of a given age are expected to live, according to a mortality table based on factors such as gender, age, heredity, and health characteristics.
demographic transition
Has 5 steps. Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population group. This is important because this is the way our country and others countries around the world are transformed from a less developed country to a more developed country.
agricultural revolution
The development of crop and animal raising as a food source among human communities to supplement hunting and gathering
industrial revolution
historical period, lasting throughout most of the 1800s, when the economy of the United States and many European nations shifted from an agricultural to a manufacturing base
medical revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
ZPG
(Zero Population Growth) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
dependancy ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Thomas Malthus
Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food populatio
Neo-Mathusians
people who believe in a set of doctrines derived from Thomas Malthus's theory that limited resources keep populations in check and reduce economic growth
migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another; a group of people migrating together (especially in some given time period)
emigration
Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving one's native country or region to settle in another. It is the same as immigration but from the perspective of the country of origin.
immigration
The migration of people into a country
net migration
the number of immigrants to a country minus the number of emigrants
circulation
the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area
push factor
A factor that leaves one with no choice but to leave one's current home (especially parental home), country, region, organization, or religion
pull factor
The lure of another country, region, organization, or religion
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