What is the name given to the organism that uses organic or living substances for food?
Why do most microorganisms prefer a neutral pH?
If the environment becomes too basic or acidic they will die.
List 5 examples of how microorganisms can enter the body
Direct contact, discharge, cough or sneeze, contaminated hands/equipment, insects with pathogens and contaminated food/water
List 3 examples of how a microorganism can be transmitted from one person to another
Water vapor, a cough or sneeze, insect that has pathogens
List 4 examples of factors that would make a host more susceptible to the entrance of a pathogen:
Low ability to fight off disease, poor health, poor hygiene, poor nutrition, and stress
List 5 protective devices of the body that prevent the entrance of microorganisms:
Skin, mucus membranes, coughing/sneezing, cilia in nose, tears, sweat, acidic urine/stomach
What is the difference between resident flora and transient flora?
Resident grows in the epidermis and deep layers of skin. Transient grows on the superficial skin layers
List three examples of when handwashing should be performed in the medical office
When hands are visibly soiled, before eating and after using the bathroom, and in between patients.
How does antiseptic handwashing sanitize the hands?
Antiseptic kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
List 3 examples of when an alcohol-based hand rub can be used to sanitize the hands:
when your hands are not visibly soiled, when a sink isn't accessible and less time is required to perform hand hygiene
What are the advantages and disadvantages of alcohol-based hand rubs?
Faster and more accessible than soap and water, no rinsing. More expensive and brief stinging sensation.
What does OSHA stand for and what is its purpose?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
To help protect people from occupational exposure to pathogens
What is the purpose of the OSHA occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens standard?
It is a set of regulations to provide safe working environments
Who must follow the OSHA standard? List examples:
Any employee with occupational exposure to pathogens. Physicians, nurses, dentists, lab personal, MA's, CNA's, etc.
What is the purpose of the Needlestick safety and prevention act?
to incorporate stronger measures to reduce needlesticks and other sharps injuries among health care workers
List 5 examples of other potentially infectious materials (OPIM)
Semen/vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal and amniotic fluids, saliva, any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood, any unfixed human tissue
What is the purpose of the exposure control plan (ECP)?
It is a written policy to eliminate or minimize employee exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
List 3 examples of items to which a biohazard warning label must be attached:
1. Containers of RMW
2. Refrigerators and freezers used to store blood and OPIM
3. Containers and bags used to store, transport or ship blood or OPIM
What is the purpose of a sharps injury log? What type of office must maintain this log?
Any office with more than 10 employees at risk for exposure are required to maintain the log. The purpose is to keep track of all needlestick injuries
Define an engineering control:
All control measures that isolate or remove health hazards from workplace.
List 3 examples of engineering controls:
1. Safer medical devices
2. Readily accessible handwashing facilities
3. Biohazard sharps containers/bags
What is a safer medical device?
A device that, based on reasonable judgement would make an exposure incident involving a contaminated sharp less likely
What should be done before and after gloves are applied?
Your hands should be clean and after they must be removed in a manner that protects you from what is or could be on the gloves.
List 6 guidelines that must be followed when using PPE:
1. PPE must not allow blood or OPIM to pass through or reach skin.
2. Employer must provide PPE at no cost to you.
3. All eye protection must have side shields, prescription eyewear is NOT allowed
4. Torn/contaminated gloves must be replaced
5. All PPE must be removed before leaving the medical office.
6. When PPE is removed it must be placed in appropriately designated areas.
What procedure should be followed when a sharps container located in an examining room becomes full?
Place into a box, usually cardboard, provided by the medical waste service. Securely seal, and make sure biohazard labels are on opposite sides of box.
Explain how to prepare regulated medical waste for pickup by a medical waste service:
Place bags and sharps containers into cardboard box, seal and store in locked room/outside shed, that the medical waste service will pick up. Place biohazard labels on outside opposite sides of box.
How should regulated medical waste be stored while awaiting pickup by the medical waste service?
In a locked room inside the facility or in a locked room outside the facility for pickup by the medical waste service. Should be labeled with signs like "Authorized Personnel Only" &/or "International Biohazard Label"
What information is included on a regulated medical waste tracking form?
Type and quantity of waste, (weighed in pounds) and where it is being sent. Must be signed by reps at the medical office, and medical waste service.
List 4 guidelines that must be followed with respect to biohazard sharps containers:
1. Locate the container as close as possible to the area of use to avoid transporting a contaminated needle. 2. Maintain containers in an upright position. 3. Don't reach into container with hand. 4. Replace on a regular basis, when 3/4 full.
What is the most likely means of contracting hepatitis B in the health care setting?
Through needlesticks and cuts with contaminated needles. Blood splashes to eyes, mouth and nonintact skin and through semen/vaginal secretions
What side effects may occur after the administration of a hepatitis B vaccine?
Soreness at the injection site, induration, erythema, and swelling. Sometimes a low grade fever, headache and dizziness occur
What postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is recommended for an unvaccinated individual who has been exposed to hepatitis B?
Administration of a passive and an active immunizing agent, within 24 hours and no later than 7 days
Why is chronic viral hepatitis B considered such a serious illness?
Every year 5000 Americans die as a result of Hep. B. Some will get over it, some will be carriers forever and some will develop liver cancer.
Why is chronic hepatitis C known as "an epidemic that occurred in the past?"
Lots of people were infected with it more than 25 years ago and are just now seeing symptoms.
How is HIV NOT transmitted?
Tears, sweat, shaking hands, hugging, coughing, etc. It's not spread by indirect contact
What is the CDC's Definition of AIDS?
The presence of one or both of the following conditions:
1. HIV positive, and a CD4+T cell count below 200 cells/Mu. (Normal people have a cell count ranging between 500-1500 cells/mu.)
2. Presence of one or more AIDS defining conditions (opportunistic infections and unusual cancers)
Telling the Patient what is expected of him when you assist him with positioning is not necessary