Medical Interventions - Unit 3
Key terms for Unit 3 - How To Conquer Cancer
Terms in this set (46)
A scientifically controlled study of the safety and effectiveness of a therapeutic agent using consenting human subjects
Clinical trial in which the subjects are distributed into groups which are either subjected to the experimental procedure or which serve as controls
double blind study
An experimental procedure in which neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which subjects are in the test and control groups during the actual course of the experiments
Area of biomedical research that seeks to use tools from the field of nanotechnology to improve health
Clinical trial in which both the researchers and the patients know who receives the drug/treatment and who receives a placebo
The study of the interrelation of hereditary constitution and response to drugs
An inert or innocuous substance used especially in controlled experiments testing the efficacy of another substance (as a drug)
single blind study
An experimental procedure in which the experimenters but not the subjects know the makeup of the test and control groups during the actual course of the experiments
Variant DNA sequence in which the purine or pyrimidine base of a single nucleotide has been replaced by another such base (also called single nucleotide polymorphism)
The technique of making unconscious or involuntary bodily processes (as heartbeat or brain waves) perceptible to the senses in order to manipulate them by conscious mental control
The use of chemical agents in the treatment or control of disease or mental disorder
The spread of a disease-producing agency (such as cancer cells or bacteria) from the initial or primary site of disease to another part of the body
Utilizing electricity generated by muscle
Therapy based on engagement in meaningful activities of daily life (as self-care skills, education, work, or social interaction) especially to enable or encourage participation in such activities despite impairments or limitations in physical or mental functioning
The treatment of disease by physical and mechanical means (as massage, regulated exercise, water, light, heat, and electricity)
An artificial device to replace or augment a missing or impaired part of the body
The treatment of disease by means of radiation (as X-rays)
Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus
Either of two tumor suppressor genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) that in mutated form tend to be associated with an increased risk of certain cancers and especially breast and ovarian cancers
Surgery in which diseased or abnormal tissue (as a tumor or wart) is destroyed or removed by freezing (as by the use of liquid nitrogen)
Cancer that occurs in families more often than would be expected by chance. These cancers often occur at an early age, and may indicate the presence of a gene mutation that increases the risk of cancer. They may also be a sign of shared environmental or lifestyle factors.
Alteration in DNA that may indicate an increased risk of developing a specific disease or disorder
An inherited disorder in which affected individuals have a higher-than-normal chance of developing certain types of cancer, often before the age of 50
A genetic technique whereby the sequence of the gene is not directly analyzed, but the mutant copy (allele) of the gene is inferred through analysis of a genetic marker
microsatellite / short tandem repeats (STR)
Any of numerous short segments of DNA that are distributed throughout the genome, that consist of repeated sequences of usually two to five nucleotides, and that are often useful markers in studies of genetic linkage because they tend to vary from one individual to another
A tumor of high malignancy that starts in melanocytes of normal skin or moles and metastasizes rapidly and widely
An organism chosen to study broad biological principles
To test or examine for the presence of something (as a disease)
Cancer occurring occasionally, singly, or in scattered instances
A specialist in virology, the branch of science that deals with viruses
The changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.
The removal and examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body.
A test that detects areas of increased or decreased bone metabolism; test is performed to identify abnormal processes involving the bone such as tumor, infection, or fracture.
A malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally and systemically.
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two.
computed tomography (CT) scan
A sectional 3-dimensional view of the body constructed by computed tomography.
Technologies that doctors use to look inside your body for clues about a medical condition; includes X-rays, CT scans, nuclear medicine scans, MRI scans and ultrasound.
A microarray of immobilized single-stranded DNA fragments of known nucleotide sequence that is used especially in the identification and sequencing of DNA samples and in the analysis of gene expression (as in a cell or tissue).
magnetic resonance imaging
A noninvasive diagnostic technique that produces computerized images of internal body tissues and is based on nuclear magnetic resonance of atoms within the body induced by the application of radio waves.
A gene having the potential to cause a normal cell to become cancerous.
A cancer derived from bone or containing bone tissue.
A normal cellular gene corresponding to an oncogene; a gene with a potential to cause cancer but that requires some alteration to become an oncogene.
A branch of medicine concerned with the use of radiant energy (as X-rays or ultrasound) in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Something that increases risk or susceptibility.
tumor suppressor gene
A gene whose protein products inhibit cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth (cancer).
To examine, treat, or photograph with X-rays.
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