71 terms

Photosynthesis

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saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
Thylakoid
-cluster of chlorophyll and protein found in thylakoids
-Captures light E
Photosystem
contains the enzyme necessary for photosynthesis
stroma
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
chlorophyll
-light absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
Pigment
-compound used by cells to store and release energy
-ADP+pi
-Energy molecule used in the Calvin Cycle
ATP
set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
light-dependent reaction
-cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions to pass through it
ATP synthase
Calvin Cycle
-light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NAPDH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
The collective term for the stack of thylakoids within the chloroplast of plant cells
Granum
the atmosphere, through the stoma of the plant
How do plants obtain the carbon dioxide they need for photosynthesis?
what molecules, produced by photosynthesis, are used to store energy from the sun?
Glucose, ATP, NADPH
Uses light energy to split water
Photosystem II
uses light energy to re-energize electrons
photosystem 1
Transfers electrons between light-collecting molecules
Electron Carrier Protein
region where hydrogen ions accumulate when water is split
Thylakoid Space (lumen)
Explain role of light energy in the light-dependent reactions
Gives electrons energy. Used to split water to make ATP & NADPH
describe the location of photosystem I and II inside the chloroplast
Thylakoid Membrane
What 2 high-energy compounds are created by the light-dependant reactions?
ATP & NADPH are sent to the Calvin Cycle
The Calvin Cycle begins when one molecule of carbon dioxide is added to each of 3 ______ molecules to form three 6-carbon molecules
RuBP
part of the thylakoid space
Photosystem I and II are....
The Calvin Cycle is another name for______
Light-independent reactions
Why does the space inside the thylakoid become positively charged during the light-dependent reactions?
H+ ions build up in the space as water splits
What step begins photosynthesis?
Pigments in PS II absorb light
What molecule acts as carriers for energy and high energy electrons during photosynthesis?
NADPH
How is the Calvin cycle different from the light-dependent reactions?
Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma
oxygen produced during the light-dependent reaction is _____
Oxygen is not produced by the light-dependent reaction
name 3 factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs
light, water, & carbon dioxide
thylakoid space
On which side of the membrane is water split?
On which side of the membrane is NADPH produced?
stroma
On which side of the membrane do H+ ions build up?
Thylakoid Space
Where does the light-dependent reaction take place?
Part of the thylakoid membrane
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
In the stroma
desert plants; close stoma during day and open it at night. Fixes Co2 into an organic acid at night and during the day carries out the Calvin cycle (provided with ATP and NADPH from the light). Separate fixing Co2 (night) and fixing sugars (day).
CAM Plants
tropical (example.) sugar cane & corn. They fit carbon dioxide as a 4 carbon molecule in the mesophyll. It now has a new enzyme that it uses called pep carboxylase (which has a high infinity of sugar). Sends Co2 into the bundle sheath where the Calvin cycle happens (sugar is made). The fixing of Co2 and sugars happen in the mesophyll and one in the bundle sheath.
C4 Plants
C6H12O6+6O2
Products (Chemical Equation)
Photosynthetic Organelle
Chloroplast
Original source of energy
Sunlight
6CO2+6H20
Reactants (Chemical Equation)
Light Reaction
Reaction that is dependent upon light
Photosystem where the electrons are re-energized
PS 1
Photosystem where H2O is split
PS 2
Splits into electrons, hydrogens, and oxygen
H20
-Energy from electrons are used to pump these ions
-Pumped from the stroma to the lumen/diffuse back to the stroma
H+
Space inside the thylakoid
Lumen
NADP+e'+H+
NADPH
Proteins that carry e' from PS 2 to PS 1
ETC
Enzymes produce ATP when H+ diffuses though it
ATPsynthase
Calvin Cycle occurs here
Stroma
-Site of the light reaction
-Phospholipid bilayer
Thylakoid membrane
Rubisco
Enzyme needed for the Calvin Cylce
Sugar product of the Calvin Cycle
PGAL or G3P
Products of the light reaction
ATP and NADPH
Gas needed for the Calvin Cylce
CO2 (Comes from atmosphere)
Chlorophyll a + b absorb these wavelengths of light
Red and blue wavelengths
Released through the stroma
O2
Drops of H+ plus electrons in the Calvin Cycle
NADPH (reducing power)
This wavelength of light is reflected
Green wavelength
Molecules at the end of the Calvin Cycle
PGAL, ADP + pi, NADP+
Molecules at the end of the light reaction
ATP, NADPH, O2
Pigments that aid in photosynthesis
Caretenoids (See color in fall)
Pigment being reflected
Color of an object ie. flower
Transformation of energy
Light- Electrical- Chemical
Means light-thylakoid
Photo
Means fixing Carbon in the Calvin Cycle
Synthesis
Controls opening of the stoma
Guard Cell
Tissue that transports H20 + minerals
Xylem
Protects inner tissues
Palisade + Spongy layer
Tissue that transports sugars
Phloem
Pores in the leaf (O2+CO2+H20)
Stoma/Stomata
Most photosynthesis takes place here
Lower and Upper epidermis