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Microbiology Ch. 4--Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic Cells [part I]

Vocab from Microbiology.
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coccus
round shape
baccillus
rod shape
diplo-
prefix meaning two
strepto-
prefix meaning chain
staphylo-
prefix meaning cluster; describes cocci that divide in multiple planes to form clusters
tetrads
cocci that divide in two planes and remain in groups of four
sarcinae
cocci that divide in three planes and remain attached in cubelike groups of eight
vibrios
bacteria that look like curved rods
spirilia
bacteria that have a helical shape, like a corkscrew and move by using flagella
spirochetes
bacteria that are helical, have a flexible cell wall, and move by using axial filaments
monomorphic
bacteria that maintain a single shape
pleomorphic
bacteria that can have many shapes
glycocalyx
a viscous, gelatinous polymer made of polysaccharide or polypeptide that is made inside the cell and secreted to the cell surface
capsule
glycocalyx that is organized and firmly attached to the cell wall; often prevent phagocytosis
slime layer
glycocalyx that is unorgaized and only loosely attache to the cell wall
extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)
glycocalyx made of sugars that lets bacteria attach to various surfaces
flagella
long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria
atrichous
describes bacteria that lack flagella
monotrichous
single polar flagellum
amphitrichous
tuft of flagella at each end of the cell
lophotrichous
two or more flagella at one or both ends of the cell
peritrichous
flagella distributed over the entire cell
filament
the long outermost region of a flagellum
flagellin
the globular protein in a filament that is arranged in several intertwining chains that form a helix around a hollow core
hook
filament attaches to this, which consists of a different protein
basal body
part of a flagellum that anchors it to the cell wall and plasma membrane
motility
the ability of an organism to move by itself
run
when bacteria move in one direction
tumble
periodic, abrupt, random changes in direction
taxis
movement of bacteria toward or away form a particular stimulus
chemotaxis
taxis where stimuli are chemicals
phototaxis
taxis where stimulus is light
attractant
positive chemotactic signal
repellent
negative chemotactic signal
H antigen
flagellar protein that is useful for distinguishing amoung serovars
serovars
variations within a species of gram-negative bacteria
axial filaments (endoflagella)
bundgles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath outer sheath and spiral around cell
fimbriae
appendages on bacterial cell used for attachment
pili
appendages on bacterial cell used for transfer of genetic material during conjugation
cell wall
complex, semirigid structure responsible for shape of the cell that prevents lysis
plasma membrane
selectively permeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell, which is internal to the cell wall in bacteria
peptidoglycan
structural molecule of bacterial cell walls consisting of molecules of NAG and NAM
polypeptides
chain of amino acids
lysis
rupture of plasma membrane
porins
type of protein in outher membrane of gram-negative cell walls that permits passage of small molecules
O polysaccharides
sugars that function as antigens and are useful for distinguishing species of gram-negative bacteria
mycolic acid
long-chained, branched fatty acids
protoplast
gram-positive bacterium or plant cell treated to remove the cell wall
L forms
prokaryotic cells that lack a cell wall; can return to a walled state
spheroplast
gram-negative bacterium treate to damage the cell wall, resulting in a spherical cell
osmotic lysis
rupture of the plasma membrane resulting from movement of water into the cell