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Chapter 15 Medterms

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brain
contained within the cranium, the center for coordinating body activities
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres. The cerebrum controls the skeletal muscles, interprets general senses (such as temperature, pain, and touch), and contains centers for sight and hearing. Intellect, memory, and emotional reactions also take place in the cerebrum.
ventricles
spaces within the brain that contain a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum
located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Its function is to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balance (also called hindbrain)
brainstem
stemlike portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord. Ten of the 12 cranial nerves originate in the brainstem.
pons
literally means bridge. It connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem.
medulla oblongata
located between the pons and spinal cord. It contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, and the muscles in the blood vessel walls, which assist in determining blood pressure.
midbrain
most superior portion of the brainstem
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
clear, colorless fluid contained in the ventricles that flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord. It cushions the brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients, and clears metabolic waste.
spinal cord
passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflex action to sensory information without input from the brain.
meninges
three layers of membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord
dura mater
tough outer layer of the meninges
arachnoid
delicate middle layer of the meninges. The arachnoid membrane is loosely attached to the pia mater by weblike fibers, which allow for the subarachnoid space.
pia mater
thin inner layer of the meninges
nerve
cordlike structure made up of fibers that carries impulses from one part of the body to another. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
ganglion(pl. ganglia)
group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system
glia
specialized cells that support and nourish nervous tissue. Some cells assist in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid and others assist with phagocytosis. They do not conduct impulses. Three types of glia are astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia. (also called neuroglia)
neuron
a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses to carry out the function of the nervous system. Destroyed neurons cannot be replaced.
cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum, brain
dur/o
hard, dura mater
encephal/o
brain
gangli/o, ganglion/o
ganglion
gli/o
glia, gluey substance
mening/o, meningi/o
meninges
myel/o
spinal cord
neur/o
nerve
radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o
nerve root (proximal end of a peripheral nerve, closest to the spinal cord)
esthesi/o
sensation, sensitivity, feeling
ment/o, psych/o
mind
mon/o
one, single
phas/o
speech
poli/o
gray matter
quadr/i
four
-iatrist
specialist, physician
iatry
treatment, specialty
ictal
seizure, attack
paresis
slight paralysis
cerebellitis
inflammation of the cerebellum
cerebral thrombosis
pertaining to the cerebrum, abnormal condition of a clot (blood clot in a blood vessel of the brain). (Onset of symptoms may appear from minutes to days after an obstruction occurs; a cause of ischemic stroke)
duritis
inflammation of the dura mater
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
encephalomalacia
softening of the brain
encephalomyeloradiculitis
inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots
gangliitis
inflammation of a ganglion
glioblastoma
tumor composed of developing glial tissue (the most malignant and most common primary tumor of the brain)
glioma
tumor composed of the glial tissue (glioma is used to describe all primary neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord)
meningioma
tumor of the meninges (benign and slow growing)
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
meningocele
protrusion of the meninges (through a defect in the skull of vertebral arch)
meningomyelocele
protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord (through a neural arch defect in the vertebral column) (also called myelomeningocele)
mononeuropathy
disease affecting a single nerve (such as carpal tunnel syndrome)
neuralgia
pain in a nerve
neurasthenia
nerve weakness
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
neuroarthropathy
disease of nerves and joints
neuroma
tumor made up of nerve (cells)
neuropathy
disease of the nerves (peripheral)
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (This infectious disease, commonly referred to as polio, is caused by one of three polio viruses.)
polyneuritis
inflammation of many nerves
polyneuropathy
disease of many nerves (most often occurs as a side effect of diabetes mellitus, but may also occur as a result of drug therapy, critical illness such as sepsis, or carcinoma; exhibiting symptoms of weakness, distal sensory loss, and burning)
radiculitis
inflammation of the nerve roots
radiculopathy
disease of the nerve roots
rhizomeningomyelitis
inflammation of the nerve root, meninges, and spinal cord
subdural hematoma
pertaining to below the dura mater, tumor of blood (hematoma, translated literally, means blood tumor; however, a hematoma is a collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel)
Alzheimer disease
disease characterized by early dementia, confusion, loss of recognition or persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, and impaired memory
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
progressive muscle atrophy caused by degeneration and scarring of neutrons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord that control muscles (also called Lou Gehrig disease)
Bell palsy
paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. Signs include a sagging a mouth on the affected side and nonclosure of the eyelid
cerebral aneurysm
aneurysm in the cerebrum
cerebral embolism
an embolus (usually a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque arising from a distant site) lodges in a cerebral artery, causing sudden blockage of blood supply to the brain tissue. A common cause of cerebral embolism, a type of ischemic stroke, is atrial fibrillation
cerebral palsy
condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
dementia
cognitive impairment characterized by a loss of intellectual brain function. Patients have difficulty in various ways, including difficulty in performing complex tasks, reasoning, learning, and retaining new information, orientation, word finding, and behavior. Dementia has several causes and is not considered part of normal aging.
epilepsy
condition characterized by recurrent seizures; a general term given to a group of neurologic disorders, all characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain
hydrocephalus
increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants
intracerebral hemorrhage
bleeding into the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel within the brain. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the hemorrhage; acute symptoms include dyspnea, dysphagia, aphasia, diminished level of consciousness, and hemiparesis. The symptoms often develop suddenly. Intracerebral hemorrhage, a cause of hemorrhagic stroke, is frequently associated with high blood pressure.
multiple sclerosis (MS)
degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord. Signs and symptoms are variable and fluctuate over the course of the disease. More common symptoms include fatigue, balance and coordination impairments, numbness, and vision problems.
Parkinson disease
chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Signs and symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait. It usually occurs after the age of 50 years.
sciatica
inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes; can be caused by injury, infection, arthritis, herniated disk, or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods
shingles
viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves (also called herpes zoster)
stroke
occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of oxygen and nutrients. The cells cannot perform and may be damaged or die within minutes. The parts of the body controlled by the involved cells will experience dysfunction. Speech, movement, memory, and other CNS functions may be affected in varying degrees. Ischemic stroke is a result of a blocked blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke is a result of bleeding. (also called cerebrovascular accident [CVA] or brain attack
subarachnoid hemorrhage
bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain (usually a ruptured cerebral aneurysm) that rapidly fills the space between the brain and skull (subarachnoid space) with blood. The patient may experience an intense, vomiting, and neck pain (a cause of hemorrhagic stroke)
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time. The symptoms may be similar to those of stroke, but with TIA the symptoms are temporary and the usual outcome is complete recovery. TIAs are often warning signs for eventual occurrence of a stroke
ganglionectomy
excision of a ganglion (also called gangliectomy)
neurectomy
excision of a nerve
neurolysis
separating a nerve (from adhesions)
neuroplasty
surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrhaphy
suture of a nerve
neurotomy
incision into a nerve
radicotomy, rhizotomy
incision into a nerve root
cerebral angiography
radiographic imaging of the blood vessels in the brain (after an injection of contrast medium)
CT myelography
process of recording (scan) the spinal cord (after an injection of a contrast agent into the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture. Size, shape, and position of the spinal cord are nerve roots are demonstrated.)
electroencephalogram (EEG)
record of the electrical impulses of the brain
electroencephalograph
instrument used to record the electrical impulses of the brain
electroencephalography
process of recording the electrical impulses of the brain
computed tomography of the brain (CT scan)
process that includes the use of a computer to produce a series of brain tissue images at any desired depth. The procedure is painless and particularly useful in diagnosing brain tumors
magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine (MRI scan)
a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field. Unlike a CT scan, MRI produces images without use of radiation. It is used to visualize tumors, edema, multiple sclerosis, and herniated disks
positron emission tomography of the brain (PET scan)
nuclear medicine imaging technique with a radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity. Images are projected on a viewing screen.
evoked potential studies (EP studies)
a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli. Visual evoked response (VER) is a response to visual stimuli. Auditory evoked response (AER) is a response to auditory stimuli.
lumbar puncture (LP)
insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. It is performed for many reasons, including the removal of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes (also called spinal tap)
anesthesia
without (loss of) feeling or sensation
aphasia
condition of without speaking (loss or impairment of the ability to speak)
cephalalgia
pain in the head (headache) (also called cephalgia)
cerebral
pertaining to the cerebrum
craniocerebral
pertaining to the cranium and cerebrum
dysphasia
condition of difficulty speaking
encephalosclerosis
hardening of the brain
gliocyte
glial cell
hemiparesis
slight paralysis of half (right or left side of the body)
hemiplegia
paralysis of half (right or left side of the body); stroke is the most common cause of hemiplegia
hyperesthesia
excessive sensitivity (to stimuli)
interictal
(occurring) between seizures or attacks
intracerebral
pertaining to within the cerebrum
mental
pertaining to the mind
monoparesis
slight paralysis of one (limb)
monoplegia
paralysis of one (limb)
myelomalacia
softening of the spinal cord
neuroid
resembling a nerve
neurologist
physician who studies and treats diseases of the nerves (nervous system)
neurology
study of nerves (branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the nervous system)
panplegia
total paralysis (also spelled pamplegia)
paresthesia
abnormal sensation (such as burning, prickling, or tingling sensation, often in the extremities; may be caused by nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy)
postictal
(occuring) after a seizure or attack
preictal
(occurring) before a seizure or attack
quadriplegia
paralysis of four (limbs)
subdural
pertaining to below the dura mater
afferent
conveying toward a center (for example, afferent nerves carry impulses to the central nervous system)
ataxia
lack of muscle coordination
cognitive
pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reason
coma
state of profound unconsciousness
concussion
injury to the brain caused by major or minor head trauma; symptoms include vertigo, headache, and possible loss of consciousness.
conscious
awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings
convulsion
sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles; may be present during a seizure
disorientation
a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity
dysarthria
the inability to use speech that is distinct and connected because of a loss of muscle control after damage to the peripheral or central nervous system
efferent
conveying away from the center (for example, efferent nerves carry information away from the central nervous system)
gait
a manner or style of walking
incoherent
unable to express one's thoughts or ideas in an orderly, intelligible manner
paraplegia
paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord
seizure
sudden surge of abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in involuntary body movements or behaviors
shunt
tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid
syncope
fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum
unconsciousness
state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, illness, or drugs
psychiatrist
a physician who studies and treats disorders of the mind
psychiatry
specialty of the mind (branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of mental disorders)
psychogenic
originating in the mind
psychologist
specialist of the mind
psychology
study of the mind (a profession that involves dealing with the mind and mental processes in relation to human behavior)
psychopathy
(any) disease of the mind
psychosis (pl. psychoses)
abnormal condition of the mind (major mental disorder characterized by extreme derangement, often with delusions and hallucinations
psychosomatic
pertaining to the mind and body (interrelations of)
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a disturbed perception of body image resulting in failure to maintain body weight, intensive fear of gaining weight, pronounced desire for thinness, and, in females, amenorrhea
anxiety disorder
an emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness arising typically from the anticipation of unreal or imagined danger
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a disorder of learning and behavioral problems characterized by marked inattention, distractability, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
autism
a spectrum of mental disorders, the features of which include onset during the infancy or childhood, preoccupation with subjective mental activity, inability to interact socially, and impaired communication
bipolar disorder
a major psychological disorder typified by a disturbance in mood. The disorder is manifested by manic and depressive episodes that may alternate or elements of both may occur simultaneously.
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by uncontrolled binge eating followed by purging (induced vomiting)
major depression
a mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, discouragement, hopelessness, lack of joy, altered sleep patterns, and difficulty with decision making and daily function. Depression ranges from normal feelings of sadness (resulting from and proportional to personal loss or tragedy), through dysthymia (chronic depressive neurosis), to major depression (also referred to as clinical depression, mood disorder).
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
a disorder characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts that result in the tendency to perform repetitive acts or rituals (compulsions), usually as a means of releasing tension or anxiety
panic attack
an episode of sudden onset of acute anxiety, occurring unpredictably, with feelings of acute apprehension, dyspnea, dizziness, sweating, and/or chest pain, depersonalization, paresthesia and fear of dying, loss of mind or control
phobia
a marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific situation or object (such as claustrophobia, the abnormal fear of being in enclosed spaces)
pica
compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice. This condition is often a result of an iron deficiency. When iron deficiency is the cause of pica the condition will disappear in 1 or 2 weeks when treated with iron therapy.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a disorder characterized by an acute emotional response to a traumatic event perceived as life threatening or severe emotional stress such as an airplane crash, repeated physical or emotional trauma, or military combat. Symptoms incude anxiety, sleep disturbance, nightmares, difficulty concentrating, and depression.
schizophrenia
any one of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortions of reality, disturbance of language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction, and the disorganization and fragmentation of thought, perception, and emotional reaction
somatoform disorders
disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known physical cause exists
AD
Alzheimer disease
ADHD
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
CNS
central nervous system
CP
cerebral palsy
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
EEG
electroencephalogram
EP studies
evoked potential studies
LP
lumbar puncture
MRI scan
magnetic resonance imaging scan
MS
multiple sclerosis
OCD
obsessive-compulsive disorder
PD
Parkinson disease
PET scan
positron emission tomography scan
PNS
peripheral nervous system
PTSD
posttraumatic stress disorder
TIA
Transient ischemic attack