AP Biology Enzymes (Ch 6)
Terms in this set (24)
Process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
A starting substance in a chemical reaction
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
Energy of motion
Stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Building a large macromolecule from smaller subunits.
Requires an input of energy.
Complex molecules are broken down to simpler ones and energy is released.
The amount of energy available to perform work
a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system
When a protein loses its shape; unravels and the function of it changes
A biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy of reactions in cells, almost always a protein
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
Region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits.
Occurs when substrate cannot bind to active site of enzyme
Binds to an enzyme's active site and prevents the binding of the substrate
A reversible inhibitor that binds to an enzyme somewhere other than the active site (allosteric site) changing the shape of the active site
Occurs when an enzyme in a pathway is inhibited by the product of that pathway (lots of product slows down or blocks the reaction)
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
Regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone (amino and carboxyl groups)
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits (interactions of R groups)
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Chapter 4: Cell Organelles and Function