AP Biology Biomolecules Ch 3
Terms in this set (40)
An atom or group of atoms that determine the functions or properties of the compound
large molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
A compound made up of many small, repeating units linked together in a chain.
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
molecules are joined together through the loss of a water molecule
A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.
An energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
A carbohydrate compound consisting of two sugar molecules joined together. Example: sucrose, lactose
A large molecule made of linked monosaccharides.
macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
lipid made of three fatty acids and a glycerol
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms. Solid at room temperature, generally made by animals.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. Liquid at room temperature.
Carbon and hydrogen chain that make up most lipids. Often bonded to glycerol
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
Macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. DNA & RNA (made of nucleotides)
nitrogenous base with one ring (thymine, cytosine, uracil)
nitrogenous base with two rings (adenine and guanine)
Part of a nucleotide; cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine (DNA only) and uracil (RNA only)
complementary base paring
C bonds with G. A bonds with T (U in RNA)
Compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end. Building block of proteins.
A functional group that defines a particular amino acid and gives it special properties.
The bond that forms between two amino acids
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
When a protein loses its shape; unravels and the function of it changes
A biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy of reactions in cells, almost always a protein
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
Regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone (amino and carboxyl groups)
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits (interactions of R groups)
alcohol functional group
A carbonyl group located on the inside of the carbon chain.
A carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon chain.
a chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
nonpolar functional group
forms disulfide bridges in protein structure
A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
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