WH1 -Chapter 2 notes

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Mesopotamia's rivers
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Dariusunited the Persian empire by dividing it into provincesPhoenicianscreated the alphabet with 22 consonantsKing Menes (Narmer)United upper and lower EgyptOld Kingdompharaohs - absolute power by divine right Great Pyramids at GizaOld Kingdom Collapse-power struggles -crop failures -pyramids = $$(man power and time) NOT because of decline in populationMiddle Kingdommost unstable periodthe Hyksosinvaded and took Egypt *end of Middle Kingdommade the New Kingdom strongbronze work new crops/animals composite bowthe New Kingdom rulersHatshepsut -female pharaoh Ramses II -ruled 66 years -expanded Egypt -after death Egypt falls and Nubia conquers Egypt(collapse of New Kingdom) Tomb of Tutankhamen -1922 Howard Carter found the tombChief Gods and GoddessesAmon-Ra - sun god Osiris - god of underworld Iris - goddesses of marriageAkhenatenfirst monotheist Aton = only God people resistMummification processorgans removed body filled with spices wrapped in linen buried with itemshierarchy or social classesPharaoh, high priests, nobles, peasantsEgyptian writingHieroglyphics/DemoticEgyptians inventedthe calendarStart of JudaismIsraelite's and AbrahamBeliefs of Judaismmonotheistic -10 commandments human leadersShort Answer - Explain the significance of the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II?Ramses had the longest rule of 66 years and Egypt was at is peak being the largest and most powerful under Ramses rule. Egypt also expanded during his rule.Short Answer - Describe the role of Hammurabi as a lawmaker?He made laws that set punishments or fines for people's wrong doings. It had 300 laws in it and the famous saying "An eye for an eye" in it.. The two sections of the code was criminal laws and civil laws.Short Answer - Explain why the Nile river was important to Egyptian civilization.The Nile would flood which provided good farmland, was a good form of transportation, and the water brought animals near.Essay? - Characteristics of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.Old- The government was very strong, with pharaohs being in charge, and Viziers being second in command. They had the Great Pyramids which took a lot of time and manpower. Ended because of crop failure, power struggles, and the energy put into making the pyramids. Middle- This was the most unstable kingdom, but they had new things like new irrigation systems and more trading. Ended when the Hyksos invaded Egypt. New- This was the largest and most powerful of the kingdoms. They had bronze working, new crops and animals, and composite bows. Ramses II ruled in the New Kingdom for 66 years, and he expanded Egypt. Ended when Ramses II dies and Nubia conquers Egypt.