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AP Bio Chapter 6
Terms in this set (93)
Visible light passes through the specimen and then through the glass lens. The lenses bend the light in a way, so the image of the specimen is magnified as it's projected into the eye or camera
What are three important parameters in microscopy?
Magnification, resolution, and contrast
The ratio of an object's image size to its real size
A measure of the clarity of an image
Difference in brightness between the light and dark areas of an image
A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell.
Microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen or onto it's surface
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
An electron microscope used to study the fine details of cell's topography. Shows a 3D image of the specimen
How does the scanning electron microscope work?
An electron beam scans the electrons, with a thin gold film, exciting the electrons which are then detected by a device that translates the patter of the electrons onto a screen.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Useful to study internal structure of cells. Profiles a thin section of a specimen.
What's the process for the specimen for the transmission electron microscope?
Specimen is stained with toms of heavy metal, which attach to certain cellular structures, enhancing the electron density f the cell more than others.
What kind of lenses does the SEM and TEM use?
The SEM and TEM use electromagnets as lenses to bend the path of the electrons, ultimately focusing the image onto a monitor for viewing
What is a disadvantage of electron microscopy?
The methods used to prepare the specimens kill the cells
Study of cells
What is the most important tool for cytology?
Technique in which cells are broken into pieces and the different cell parts are separated
In the centrifuge, which spins test tubes holding mixtures of disrupted cells at different speeds, at a lower speed do the pellets, a subset of the cell component that settle at the bottom of the tube, consist of larger or smaller cell components?
The pellets have larger cell components
In the centrifuge, which spins test tubes holding mixtures of disrupted cells at different speeds, at a higher speed do the pellets, a subset of the cell component that settle at the bottom of the tube, consist of larger or smaller cell components?
The pellets have smaller cell components
Cell fractionation enables researches to do what?
Cell fractionation enables researchers to prepare specific cell components in bulk and identify their functions
Cells have two distinct types, which are?
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
What basic features do all cells share?
- Bounded by a selective barrier (plasma membrane)
- Inside of the cell is a jellylike substance called cytosol
- Cells contain chromosomes (carriers of genes [DNA])
- All cells own ribosomes (tiny complexes that make proteins according to the instructions from the genes)
What is the major difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
The location of their DNA
- Eukaryotic's DNA is in the nucleus with a double membrane
- Prokaryotic's DNA is in the nucleoid with no membrane
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Do prokaryotic cells have membrane-bounded structures suspended in cytosol?
No! Only Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bounded structures suspended in cytosol.
Plasma Membrane (Cell Membrane)
A selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell
Does the plasma and organelle membranes participate in the cell's metabolism?
Yes! Because many enzymes are built into the membranes
What is the basic composition of most biological membranes?
A double layer of phospholipids and other lipids, but each membrane has a unique composition of lipids and proteins suited to that membrane's functions
How are plant and animal cells different?
Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplast and a large vacuole
animal cells have many vacuoles and a centriole
What does the nucleus contain?
Most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
What separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
The Nuclear Envelope
What is the nuclear envelope?
A double membrane made with lipid bilayers
What is the DNA organized into?
What does each chromosome contain?
One long DNA molecule associated with many proteins
What is chromatin?
The complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes
What is the nucleolus?
A small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
What does the nucleolus make?
Complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein
Do cells with high rates of protein synthesis have more or less ribosomes?
They have large numbers of ribosomes
Where are free ribosomes found?
Suspended in the cytosol
Where are bound ribosomes found?
On the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Do bound ribosomes make proteins for the cell or for the cell membrane/outside the cell?
Bound ribosomes make proteins for the cell membrane/outside the cell
Do free ribosomes make proteins for the cell or for the cell membrane/outside the cell?
Free ribosomes make proteins for the cell
What organelles are in the endomembrane system?
Nuclear envelope, ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various kinds of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane
Small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
Site of cellular protein synthesis
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
What does the smooth ER do?
Makes lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, and storage of calcium ions
What are some examples of steroids from the smooth ER?
Sex hormones of vertebrates and various steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands
What increases the rate of detoxification in the smooth ER?
Alcohol, barbiturates, and any other drugs
Proteins with carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
Carries ER products to the Golgi
Carries modified products to the cell membrane
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
A membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that many eukaryotic cells use to digest macromolecules
What makes the lysosomal membrane?
The rough ER makes the lysosomal membrane and hydrolytic enzymes
Unicellular karyotes eat by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles
A process in which lysosomes decompose damaged organelles to reuse their organic monomers
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell.
The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
What is the difference between animal cell vacuoles and plant cell vacuoles?
Plant cells have one big central vacuole while animal cells have many small vacuoles
-Site of cellular respiration
-Metabolic process using oxygen to drive the generation of ATP by extracting energy from carbohydrates
Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Explains that eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells
True or false: Cells that move or contract have proportionally more mitochondria per volume than less active cells.
Folds in the inner membrane of mitochondria
The space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
What's the green pigment in chloroplast?
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
A group of membrane‐bound organelles commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of food.
Detoxifies harmful substances, produced hydrogen peroxide, and oxidizes amino acids
Network of fibers that organize structures and activities in the cell
A protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components, producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell.
- Maintain cell shape, cell motility, chromosome movement in cell division, and organelle movements
- Made of Tubulin
- Hollow Tubes
- Maintenance of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells, division of animal cells
- 2 intertwined strands of actin
- Maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus an certain other organelle, formation of nuclear lamina
- Fibrous proteins coiled into cable
- One of several different proteins
A structure in animal cells containing centrioles from which the spindle fibers develop.
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility
True or False: Flagellum move in a snake-like motion
True or False: Flagellum move in a back and forth motion
False, Cilia moves in a back and forth motion
True or False: Cilia move in a snake-like motion
False, Flagellum moves in a snake like motion
True or False: Cilia move in a back and forth motion
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
The chemical substances located between connective tissue cells
This is a channel between adjacent cells. This acts as a sort of blood stream in plants where water and cytoplasm can pass though connecting the cells.
Tight junctions, Desmosomes, Gap junctions
3 types of cell junctions
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