What are the 4 articulating surfaces on a bone anatomically called?
Condyle - Large, smooth, rounded articulating oval structure
Facet - Small, flat, shallow articulating surface
Head - Prominent, rounded epiphysis
Trochlea - Smooth, grooced, pully-like articular process
What are the 3 depressions on a bone anatomically called?
Alveolus - Deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible
Fossa - Flattened or shallow depression
Sulcus - Narrow groove
What are the projections for a ligament called anatomically?
Crest - Narrow, prominent, ridgelike projection
Epicondyle - Projection adjacent to a condyle
Line - low ridge
Process - Any marked bony prominence
Ramus - Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure
Spine - Pointed, slender process
Trochanter - massive, rough projection found only on the femur
Tubercle - Small, round projection
Tuberosity - Large, rough projection
What are the openings and spaces called anatomically on a skeleton? (4)
Canal - passageway through a bone
Fissure - Narrow, slit like opening through a bone
Foramen - Rounded passageway through a bone
Sinus - Cavity or hollow space in a bone
What is Cleft lip?
Its the incomplete fusion of facial bones. Occurs 1 per 1000 births. Swallowing and feeding problems. May affect speech.
What do our paranasal sinuses do?
Theyre lined with mucous.
Warms and humidifies the air
Makes skull lighter
Ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary and sphenoid sinuses
What are the 5 parts to the vertebral column?
Cervical - 7 parts (atlas and axis)
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacrum - 5 fused
Coccyx - 4 fused
What are the intervertebral discs composed of?
Nucleus pulposus - gelatinous, high water content that enables spine to absorb compressive stress
Annulus fibrosus - Outer rings, ligament, inner rings, fibrocartilage
What is a herniated disc?
Its a rupture of the annulus fibrosus followed by protrusion of nucleus pulposus
Results in pressure on nerve roots - causes pain and numbness
Treated by NSAIDs, steroid drugs, PT, surgery
What is the rib cab composed of?
True ribs (T1-T7)
False ribs (T8-T12)
Floating ribs (T11-T12)
What are some differences between the male and female pelvis?
- tilted forward
- True pelvis is wide, broad, and shallow with greater capacity
- Bones lighter and thinner
- Acetabula farther apart
- More rectangular in shape
-Adapated for childbearing
- Less tilted forward
- Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep
- Bones heavier and thicker
- Acetabula closer together
- More triangular in shape
What is thalidomide?
In the 1950's and 60's it was used as a sleep aid.
It affects limb formation during weeks 4-8...
What are some common limb formations?
Polydactyly: extra digits
Meromelia: Partial absence of a limb
Phocomelia: short, poorly formed limb, fin-like
Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?
Only ____ vertebrae have costal demifacets, while only ____ vertebrae have transverse foramina