Chapter 14 Government Vocab
Terms in this set (27)
is a person who lives in a country where her or she is not a citizen
a person from a foreign nation who has established permanent residence in the United States. Can stay in the U.S. as long as they wish without becoming American citizens.
a person from a foreign country who expects to stay in the United States for a short, specified period of time.
a citizen of a nation with which the United States is at war
a person who comes to the United States without legal permit, such as a passport, visa, or entry permit.
is a general pardon the government offers-- in this case, to illegal aliens
is one that applies to a particular person
For example, a private law may allow a certain individual to enter the United States regardless of the numerical limits on immigration.
the legal process by which a person is granted the rights and privileges of a citizen
a Latin phrase that means "law of soil" grants citizenship to nearly all people born in the United States or in American territories.
means the "law of blood"
If an individual is born in a foreign country and both parents are U.S. citizens, the child is a citizen, provided one requirement is made.
a process by which members of a whole group of people, living in the same geographic area, become American citizens through an act of Congress
giving up one's citizenship by leaving one's native country to live in a foreign country.
could occur if an individual joins a Communist or totalitarian organization less than five years after becoming a citizen.
any illegally obtained evidence can be used in a federal court
an attorney, in a federal case
to cover witnesses before congressional committees and grand juries as well as defendants in criminal cases
means a person may not be tried twice for the same crime, thus protecting people from continual harrassment
rational basis test
provides that the Court will uphold a state law when the state can show a good reason to justify the classification
when a classification is made on the basis of race or national origin, and "subject to strict judicial scrutiny."
rights that go to the heart of the American system or are indispensable in a just system.
exists when individuals are treated unfairly solely because of their race, gender, ethnic group, age, physical disability, or religion. Discrimination is illegal, but may be difficult to prove
Jim Crow laws
most often in southern states, required racial segregation in such places as schools, public transportation, and hotels
separate but equal doctrine
a policy which held that if facilitites for different races were equal, they could be separate
civil rights movement
the efforts to end segregation
directly or indirectly award jobs, government contracts promotions, admission to schools, and other benefits to minorities and women
provides information on government activities related to national security and foreign policy that kept secret
summary record, of the meeting must be made