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occurs between the 7th and 9th days when the blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining


a membrane that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against and jolts caused by the woman's movements


surrounds the amnion; from which tiny hairlike villi, or blood vessles, emerge


brings the embryo and mother's blood close together but prevents them from mixing driectly; permits food and oxygen to reach the organism and waste products to be carrier away

Umbilical Cord

how the placenta is connected to the developmenting organism; contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products


the period that lasts from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy; during these 6 weeks the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs

Neural Tube

the ectoderm fold over to fold this, which will become the spinal cord and brain


the period from the 9th week to the end of pregnancy; the longest prenatal period. during this "growth and finishing" phase the organism increases rapidly in size


three equal time periods in which prenatal development in divided


a white, cheeselike substance that protects the fetus' skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid


white, downy hair that also appears over the entire body, heliping the vernix stick to the skin

Age of Viability

the point at which the fetus can survive; occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks


any environmenmtal agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

a term encompassing a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

distinguished by slow physical growth, facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, and a smooth or flattened philtrum, or an indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip), and brain injury evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning (such as memory, lamguage and communication, attention span and activity level-overactivity, planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills)

Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrom (p-FAS)

characterized by 2 of 3 facial abnormalities and brain injury as found in FAS; mothers of these children usually generally drank smaller quantities, and the children's defects vary with the timing and length of alcohol exposure

Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopment Disorder (ARND)

at least 3 levels of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities; alcohol exposure is less pervasive than in FAS

Rh Factor Incompatability

when the mother is Rh-negative (lacks the Rh blood protein) and the father is Rh-positive (has the protein), the baby may inherit the father's Rh-positive blood type. if the fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses into the mother's blood stream she begins to form antibodies that will destroy RBCs and reduce the oxygen supply to organs and tissues if they enter the fetus's system

Apgar Scale

assesses the newborn's physical condition quickly; two rating are given because some babies have trouble adjusting at first but do quite well after a few minutes

Natural (Prepared) Childbirth

a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible


inadequate oxygen supply

Breech poisition

turned so that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first

Fetal Monitors

electronic instruments tha track the baby's heart rate during labor

Cesarean Section

a surgical birth, the doctor makes and incision in the mother's abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus


infants born several weeks or mroe before their due date


babies are below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy

Infant Mortality

the number of deaths in the first year of life per 1,000 live births; an index used around the world to assess the overall health of a nation's children


an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation

States of Arousal

degrees of sleep and wakefulness

Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep

during this, brain-wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. the eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven; and slight body movements occur

Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep

the body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and even

Sudden Infant Death Syndrom (SIDS)

the unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant under 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation

Visual Activity

fineness of discrimination

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