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33 terms

Exploring Lifespan Human Development

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Implantation
occurs between the 7th and 9th days when the blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining
Amnion
a membrane that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against and jolts caused by the woman's movements
Chorion
surrounds the amnion; from which tiny hairlike villi, or blood vessles, emerge
Placenta
brings the embryo and mother's blood close together but prevents them from mixing driectly; permits food and oxygen to reach the organism and waste products to be carrier away
Umbilical Cord
how the placenta is connected to the developmenting organism; contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products
Embryo
the period that lasts from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy; during these 6 weeks the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs
Neural Tube
the ectoderm fold over to fold this, which will become the spinal cord and brain
Fetus
the period from the 9th week to the end of pregnancy; the longest prenatal period. during this "growth and finishing" phase the organism increases rapidly in size
Trimesters
three equal time periods in which prenatal development in divided
Vernix
a white, cheeselike substance that protects the fetus' skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid
Lanugo
white, downy hair that also appears over the entire body, heliping the vernix stick to the skin
Age of Viability
the point at which the fetus can survive; occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks
Teratogen
any environmenmtal agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
a term encompassing a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
distinguished by slow physical growth, facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, and a smooth or flattened philtrum, or an indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip), and brain injury evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning (such as memory, lamguage and communication, attention span and activity level-overactivity, planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills)
Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrom (p-FAS)
characterized by 2 of 3 facial abnormalities and brain injury as found in FAS; mothers of these children usually generally drank smaller quantities, and the children's defects vary with the timing and length of alcohol exposure
Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopment Disorder (ARND)
at least 3 levels of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities; alcohol exposure is less pervasive than in FAS
Rh Factor Incompatability
when the mother is Rh-negative (lacks the Rh blood protein) and the father is Rh-positive (has the protein), the baby may inherit the father's Rh-positive blood type. if the fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses into the mother's blood stream she begins to form antibodies that will destroy RBCs and reduce the oxygen supply to organs and tissues if they enter the fetus's system
Apgar Scale
assesses the newborn's physical condition quickly; two rating are given because some babies have trouble adjusting at first but do quite well after a few minutes
Natural (Prepared) Childbirth
a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible
Anoxia
inadequate oxygen supply
Breech poisition
turned so that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first
Fetal Monitors
electronic instruments tha track the baby's heart rate during labor
Cesarean Section
a surgical birth, the doctor makes and incision in the mother's abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus
Preterm
infants born several weeks or mroe before their due date
Small-for-date
babies are below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy
Infant Mortality
the number of deaths in the first year of life per 1,000 live births; an index used around the world to assess the overall health of a nation's children
Reflex
an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
States of Arousal
degrees of sleep and wakefulness
Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
during this, brain-wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. the eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven; and slight body movements occur
Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep
the body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and even
Sudden Infant Death Syndrom (SIDS)
the unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant under 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation
Visual Activity
fineness of discrimination