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Biology Exam 1
Terms in this set (205)
The fundamental principle of Biology
the scientific study of life
What are the five unifying themes of biology?
organization, information, energy and matter, interactions, evolution
What are the levels of Biological Organization?
biosphere, ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms, organs and organ systems, tissues, cells, organelles, molecules
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
all the organisms that live in a place, together with their nonliving environment
All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction.
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
individual living things
Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.
life's fundamental unit of structure and function; the smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
Groups of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study, studying how a small part of a system works
properties that appear at higher levels of organization
studying how parts of a system work together
The cell theory
States that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and all cells come from other cells.
What are the two main forms of cells?
eukaryotic and prokaryotic
What kind of cells are bacteria and archaea?
What kinds of cells are plants and animals composed of?
What is the difference between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cells are larger, have a nucleus, and have membrane enclosed organelles. Prokaryotic cells are smaller, no nucleus, and lack membrane enclosed organelles
What is life?
the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death.
What are the properties of life?
growth and reproduction, energy processing, behavior responses, and evolutionary adaption
self-propagation of DNA
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (Genetic Information)
What are the cellular domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
What are some examples of model organisms?
bacteria, budding yeast, mice, plants, and fruit flies
What are the oldest domains?
bacteria and archaea
Why are model organisms necessary?
They are easier to generate and they allow humans to learn about themselves
Climate change affects what?
What is a Biologists?
Someone who impacts lives, a continual learner, and they are socially responsible
What are the steps of the scientific method?
Exploration and discovery (observation/asking questions), forming and testing hypotheses and interpreting results/data, community analysis and feedback, and from all the steps come societal benefits
How has science benefited society?
through medical and health interventions, technology, policy, economic growth, and sustainable practices
Science relies on what kind of support?
Public support (federal grants fund much of science)
Science is a team effort that benefits from...
What is an element?
chemically simplest substance that can't be easily broken down
What are the most abundant elements in life?
What is an atom?
The basic unit of an element
What are subatomic particles?
protons, neutrons, electrons
What charge does an electron have?
What charge does a proton have?
What charge does a neutron have?
What is the nucleus?
protons and neutrons
location of electrons around the nucleus
How is the atomic number and identity of an element determined?
By the number of protons
What are the masses of the subatomic particles?
The proton and neutron are 1 Dalton, and the electron has a negligible mass
What is the mass number?
Number of protons and neutrons
What is a neutral atom?
The same number of protons and electrons
What makes an atom charged or an ion?
The loss or gain of electrons
Why can't more or fewer protons affect the charge of the atom?
It becomes a different element
How many neutrons does sodium have?
What are the subatomic particles found in Hydrogen?
1 proton, 1 electron, 0 neutrons
What determines the identity of an element?
number of protons
More or fewer electrons results in..
More or fewer neutrons results in..
What is an isotope?
An atom that has more neutrons than "normal"
Is an isotope a charged atom?
How does the mass of an isotope compare to "normal"?
It's heavier and bigger
What is a radioactive isotope?
An unstable isotope that gives off energy during nuclear decay (loss of proton or neutron)
What is a half-life?
the time it takes for 50% of the isotope to decay
What is an electron shell?
The location of electrons around the nucleus
How many electrons are in each shell?
1st shell: 2 electrons, 2nd and 3rd shell: 8 electrons
What is a valence shell?
outermost shell of an atom
How is the chemical behavior of an atom determined?
By the valence shell
How are valence shells completed?
by bonding or ionizing because this helps atoms gain or lose electrons to fill valence shells
A neutral atom has 9 protons. How many electrons will be in each electron shell? How could this atom have a full valence shell?
1st: 2, 2nd: 7. By gaining 2 more electrons through bonding
Bonding helps atoms have complete...
What is a compound?
2 or more elements chemically combined
What are covalent bonds?
sharing of electrons
Is H2 a compound?
What is a molecule?
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
A single bond is...
a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons
A double bond is...
A chemical bond formed when atoms share two pairs of electrons
Nitrogen has seven electrons. How many covalent bonds can it make?
three covalent bonds
What is electronegativity?
an atom's attraction to elements in a covalent bond
Higher electronegativity means...
a higher pull on electrons, increased negative charge
lower electronegativity means...
less pull on electrons , decreased negative charge
What is a polar covalent bond?
atoms in a bond that have different electronegativities
What is a non-polar bond?
Atoms in a bond have similar electronegativities
Considering the following electronegativities: Carbon, 2.5; oxygen, 3.5; hydrogen, 2.1, which of the covalent bonds will be polar?
Oxygen and Hydrogen
Organic bonds can be considered non-polar unless...
they contain oxygen and nitrogen
What is a tetrahedron?
triangular pyramid shape of molecules
The size, shape, and charge of a molecule dictates...
the biological function
Compound bonding is...
bonding between two different elements
Covalent bonds involve...
atoms sharing electrons
Ionic bonds involve...
interaction between ions
Ionic bonds are referred to as the...
transfer of electrons
What is a cation?
A positively charged ion
What is an anion?
A negatively charged ion
A salt is...
2+ atoms held by ionic bonds
Why is the loss/gain of electrons responsible for the formation of an ion?
Because it determines the charge
Ionic bonds are common between elements at either end of the periodic table. Why do you think that is?
Because the far left side wants to gain electrons while the far right side wants to lose electrons
What are hydrogen bonds?
a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
What is a van der Waals force?
weak interaction between atoms due to momentary electron fluctuations
Van der Waals force is the...
What is a chemical reaction?
making/ breaking bonds to form new molecules; involves the transfer or energy
Covalent bonds happen between __________. Ionic bonds happen between ________.
What is a polar molecule?
a molecule that has a charge due to distribution of polar covalent bonds
How are polar and charged molecules different? How are they similar?
Both of them fill their valences. Polar molecule: protons are the same as electrons. Charge molecule: Protons do not equal the amount of electrons
What are hydrogen bonds?
an electrostatic interaction between atoms, due to a covalent interaction between hydrogen and an electronegative atom
What are water's emergent properties?
Cohesion, High heat capacity, expansion upon freezing, and an aqueous solvent
What makes Hydrogen bonding different from covalent and ionic bonds?
Hydrogen bonding isn't filling valences like ionic or covalent bonds
Do you think hydrogen binds are stronger or weaker than covalent or ionic bonds?
Why is CH4 a gas but H2O a liquid?
H2O is a liquid because it is polar, CH4 is non-polar
What kind of bond makes water very cohesive?
What is cohesion?
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
What is adhesion?
An attraction between molecules of different substances
What is surface tension?
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
Does oil, which has non-polar bonds, have higher or lower surface tension?
It has a lower surface tension than water
Water's heat capacity allows it to...
absorb a lot of heat without changing its temperature much
Specific heat is...
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius; water has a high specific heat
What is evaporation cooling?
Heat absorption that leads to hydrogen bonds breaking that causes the remaining liquid to be cooler
Hydrogen bonds are more ordered in ______ than _______.
Is ice less or more dense than water?
What is a solution?
a liquid with a homogenous mixture of substances
What is a solvent?
the substance in which the solute dissolves
What is a solute?
the substance that is dissolved
What is a hydration shell?
water molecules surrounding a dissolved substance
What is hyrdophobic?
won't mix with water
What is hydrophilic?
Why is oil, which is mostly composed of C-H bonds, hydrophobic?
It is non-polar
What property lets cats lap up water from a bowl?
adhesion... water to tongue
What is molecular mass?
the sum of masses of all atoms in a molecule; reported as Daltons
What is Avogadro's number?
6.02 x 10^23
What is the molecular mass of H2O?
What is pH?
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
What is an acid?
Increases H+ concentration of a solution, lowers pH
What is a base?
Decreases H+ concentration of a solution, increases pH
What is the neutral pH?
What is a buffer?
a substance that minimizes changes in pH
Considering the subatomic particles of hydrogen, what is H+?
no electron, 1 proton, no neutrons
What is vitalism?
a belief that life is composed of special components different from the inorganic world
What is the Miller-Urey experiment?
Amino acides can be synthesized by non-organic molecules
What is organic chemistry?
the study of carbon compounds
tetravalent; has the highest number of bonds for atoms that follow the octet rule
Can carbon make polar or non polar bonds?
It can make both non-polar and polar bonds
What are Hydrocarbons?
molecules made of hydrogen and carbon only- they store a large amount of energy
What kinds of bonds are used in hydrocarbons?
Are hydrocarbons hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
What do kinks replace when drawing a molecule?
What is an isomer?
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
What is a structural isomer?
structural isomers have the same chemical formulas, but different atomic connectivity
What is an enantiomer?
each of a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.
What is a cis-tras isomer?
cis-same on one side/ trans-on opposite sides
Why does a cis-trans isomer exist only when there is a double bond?
Because they are limited in movement/rotation
A chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom.
C=O, middle is ketone, aldehyde is the end
COOH, important in proteins; can be an acid
a chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; important in proteins; can be a base
important in proteins, can form disulfide bonds
A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms; important in nucleic acids
What is a monomer?
building blocks of polymers
What is a polymer?
long chain of monomers
What is dehydration synthesis?
Dehydration synthesis is the process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water.
What is hydrolysis?
the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
A dehydration reaction is...
synthesizing a polymer
breaking down a polymer
What are the four macromolecules of life?
Nucleic acid, proteins , lipids, and carbohydrates
What are carbohydrates?
What is the monomer of carbohydrates?
What is the polymer of carbohydrates?
What functional groups do carbohydrates have?
6 carbon sugar
5 carbon sugar
carbons in sugar molecule are numbered and followed by a prime; starts on right side
What is a glycosidic bond?
when two monosaccharide rings are bonded using a C-O-C bond
What is a glycosidic linkage?
dehydration reaction joins carbohydrates
What is a disaccharide?
two monosaccharides joined together
How many water molecules are needed to form a polysaccharide with 5 monomers?
Polysaccharides serve to...
store energy and to form rigid structures
What are lipids?
What are the three types of lipids?
fats, phospholipids, steroids
Are lipids true polymers?
What are fats made up of?
glycerol and fatty acids
What are the functional groups in fatty acids and glycerol?
What kind of bond joins lipids?
What is 3 fatty acids + glycerol (fat)?
What are fats used for?
all single bonds, saturated in hydrogen
double bond in fatty acid
What do you know about isomers with double bonds?
They are restricted in rotation or movement
What functional groups are in a phospholipid?
What fat components are in a phospholipid?
Are phospholipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Are fatty acids in phospholipids saturated or unsaturated?
What is a steroid?
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
What is cholesterol?
a steroid that stabilizes the cell membrane
What is a nucleic acid?
DNA and RNA; hereditary information macromolecules
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
What is the polymer of a nucleic acid?
What is a nucleotide made of?
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
What is a nucleoside?
pentose sugar + nitrogenous base
How many carbons are in the pentose sugar? What kind of macromolecule is it?
What is the sugar in DNA called?
deoxyribose, -OH, +H
What is the sugar in RNA called?
What are bases?
nitrogen-rich, can base-pair
What is a purine?
5 & 6 sided ring, A & G. Larger than pyrimidine
What is a pyrimidine?
6 side ring, C,T,U
U is in...
RNA; pairs with A
T is in...
What base is used in ATP?
What kind of bonds are used to form polynucleotides?
What kind of bond is a phosphodiester bond?
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