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Exam 14 - AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Terms in this set (22)
HIV is a member of what family of viruses?
Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type lll (HTLVlll).
What is the name given to HIV at its discovery in 1984?
Found worldwide but more prevalent in the US and Europe
Where is HIV-1 prevalent?
prevalent in Western Africa and countries with historical and commercial ties to that region
Where is HIV-2 prevalent?
A virus that needs a living host to survive.
HIV is an obligate virus. What is an obligate virus?
How many copies of HIV are generated and cleared daily during the acute infection period?
Nearly 2 billion
How many CD4 lymphocytes are produced and destroyed daily during the initial phase of the HIV infection?
a person is said to have seroconverted when there is development of a detectable level of HIV antibodies found in the blood
What is seroconversion?
1 to 12 weeks after exposure
When does seroconversion take place?
mononucleosis-like or flu-like symptoms, or mild to asymptomatic
What are the initial symptoms of HIV?
10 - 14 years
What is the median time between HIV infection and the development of end-stage of HIV disease, or AIDS, in an untreated individual?
All HIV infected persons with CD4 T-lymphocyte counts <200 cells/mm3 or a CD4 percentage of <14 %
What is the CDC definition for AIDS?
Does HIV cross the placental barrier? Breast milk?
Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse
Contaminated injecting drug equipment
Transmission from mother to child (vertical transmission)
What are the four most common modes of HIV transmision?
ELISA or enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
What is the gold standard screening test for HIV that is rapid and sensitive?
A second, very specific test will be done using the Western Blot.
What is done if the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is positive?
What test CONFIRMS the presence of HIV?
'viral load' test that measures the number of viral particles in the blood
What test is used to measure the progression of the HIV infection?
Normally 1-12 weeks (95%
How long does it take after exposure to detect HIV antibodies?
Denial; "It won't happen to me."
Stereotyping; "It's only a homosexual disease."
Fear; potential for social isolation and stigmas.
Cultural and community attitudes
What are the barriers to HIV prevention?
a virus that carries its genetic material in RNA rather than DNA, and it replicates by converting RNA into DNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase
What is a Retrovirus?
a rapid enzyme immunochemical assay method to detect certain bacterial antigens and antibodies; a screening test with high sensitivity
What is an Enzyme-linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA or EIA) test?
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