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33 terms

Chapter 12 vocab

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Capital
Any human made resource that is used to produce other goods and services
Entrepreneur
Someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
Cottage Industry
Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Puddling
A process developed by Henry Cort where coke, derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in pig iron (crud iron) to make high-quality iron
Industrial Capitalism
An economic system based on Industrial production
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Conservatism
A belief that limited government insures order competitive markets and personal opportunity.
Princple of Intervention
The great powers had the power to send armies into countries weher there were revolutions inorder to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.
Liberalism
An economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
Universal of Man Suffrage
All adult men could vote.
Kelmens von Metternich
Minister of Austria
Louis-Napoleon
Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Militarism
Policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
Kaiser
The title of the Holy Roman Emperors or the emperors of Austria or of Germany until 1918
plebiscite
A direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum
emancipation
The freeing of slaves
Abolitionism
Movement to end slavery.
Secede
To withdraw formally from an alliance or membership
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
Queen Victoria
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 (1819-1901)
Czar Alexander II
The son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
Romanticism
This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
Secularization
Transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession
Organic Evolution
The idea that organisms have evolved over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms
Natrual Selection
The theory that organisms better suited to their environment are more likely to survive
Realism
The attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)