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Any human made resource that is used to produce other goods and services


Someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

Cottage Industry

Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment


A process developed by Henry Cort where coke, derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in pig iron (crud iron) to make high-quality iron

Industrial Capitalism

An economic system based on Industrial production


A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)


A belief that limited government insures order competitive markets and personal opportunity.

Princple of Intervention

The great powers had the power to send armies into countries weher there were revolutions inorder to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.


An economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard

Universal of Man Suffrage

All adult men could vote.

Kelmens von Metternich

Minister of Austria


Was not only the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), but was also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.


Policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war


The title of the Holy Roman Emperors or the emperors of Austria or of Germany until 1918


A direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum


The freeing of slaves


Movement to end slavery.


To withdraw formally from an alliance or membership

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

Otto von Bismarck

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)

Queen Victoria

Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 (1819-1901)

Czar Alexander II

The son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)


This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion


Transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession

Organic Evolution

The idea that organisms have evolved over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms

Natrual Selection

The theory that organisms better suited to their environment are more likely to survive


The attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth

Ludwig van Beethoven

German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)

Louis Pasteur

French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Charles Dickens

English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)

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