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Terms in this set (57)
Functional group that characterizes an alcohol
A polyunsaturated fat contains fatty acids with multiple double-bonded carbons
A disaccharide, such as maltose, consists of two molecules of glucose linked by what type of bond
What has identical molecular formulas but different structures and characteristics
Isomers, stereoisomers, and enantiomers.
All amino acids within a protein are either polar charged or polar uncharged
The sole function of carbohydrates is to serve as energy stores.
If a person's ability to form steroids in his/her body was destroyed, what functions would be affected?
Estrogen would no longer be produced in the body
The substance most rich in unsaturated fats is..
Which of the following correctly describes bases that pair with each other in DNA double helix?
cytosine bonds with guanine
Glycogen is to animal cells as _______ is to plant cells
is used to form polymers
A protein's _______ structure contains helixes and sheets that result from hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of the polypeptide chain.
Fats and fatty acids
are insoluble in water
Why would a diet containing unsaturated fats that form triglycerides be better for an athlete when considering energy levels and health?
Saturated fats are packed closer together, making their breakdown for energy release less efficient and forming unnecessary fat deposits.
Subunits sometimes build up to form a macromolecule. Which molecule is least likely to be comprised of subunits?
Starch is used to store energy and cellulose is a structural polysaccharide. The key differences that explain these functions are
alpha 1-4 and alpha 1-6 glycosidic linkage in starch creates branching, and beta 1-4 in cellulose creates unbranched structures
The sequence of amino acids in a protein is its _____________ structure.
Acetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste. The functional group of this acid is
Identify the nonlipid molecule
lipids and carbohydrates can both be used by animals to store energy
Fuels such as gasoline are nonpolar and have high potential energy because they are largely composed of
The most hydrophobic molecule is 18
Saturated fats are composed of fatty acids with several double-bonded carbons
Fats have long chains of C-H bonds, which store high amounts of energy (false)
The functional group that forms covalent bonds between R groups within a polypeptide and that stabilizes tertiary structure is
If a specimen contains 30% adenine in its DNA, how much cytosine will it contain?
The feature of carbon important for producing a diversity of organic molecules is
carbon can form both polar and nonpolar covalent bonds with various elements.
The structural difference between saturated and unsaturated fats causes what type of change at room temperature?
Linear structure of a fatty acid causes solid formation at room temperature.
Two molecules with identical molecular formulas but different structures are called
__________ is a polymer of glucose
The macromolecule composed of amino acids is a
Macromolecules such as lipids and carbohydrates are produced from monomers through condensation reactions
Because carbon and hydrogen share similar electronegativities, they will form nonpolar covalent bonds with each other
All organic molecules contain
hydrogen and carbon
Which structure best represents a polymer?
Create a list of macromolecules that makeup and maintain living organisms. Choose all that apply
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
The molecule that is polar and acts like a base is
The primary structure of a protein ultimately determines its three-dimensional structure
The major class of macromolecules that stores energy and makes up the major component of plasma membranes are
When placed in an aqueous solution, amphipathic molecules will orient themselves with
Hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains in the middle and hydrophilic head groups facing the water
What makes phospholipids good at forming cellular membranes?
The polar and non-polar regions create an amphipathic bilayer of phospholipids.
Freidrich Wohler refuted the scientific concept of vitalism during the early 1800's by proving that organic molecules could be synthesized outside a living organism.
Lipids in the form of triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes are all important for life to occur. Select all those processes that relate to lipid functions.
prevention of water loss
The macromolecule that can accomplish the widest range of biological functions are
You are given two nucleic acids; one RNA and the other DNA. What are the main features to determine which is the DNA?
The formation of complex molecules that form life is made possible by what understanding regarding carbon?
Carbon forms up to 4 covalent bonds.
An amino acid is to a protein as a ________ is to a nucleic acid.
Sickle cell anemia is a condition in which red blood cells exhibit a characteristic "sickle" shape. This arises from a mutation or change in one of the amino acids found in hemoglobin. A single amino acid mutation would directly affect a proteins_______ structure.
Multiple functional groups are able to attach macromolecules. What is the most useful characteristic that enables the attachment of multiple functional groups?
Four carbon covalent bonds.
Carbohydrate assembly occurs by
a dehydration reaction between monosaccharides that form polysaccharides and disaccharides.
What structural component makes fat an efficient macromolecule able to store high amounts of energy?
Fats have long chains of C-H bonds, which store high amounts of energy.
If sucrose is composed of both glucose and fructose, then sucrose must be a monosaccharide.
The portion of an amino acid that makes he amino acid unique among the 20 different amino acids is
The side chain or R-group
If you were asked to build a model of nucleotide, what structures would you need to represent in the model?
five carbon sugar, phosphate group, base
Proteins can have separate domains with distinct structures and functions.
Organic molecules with identical molecular formulas and mirror-image structures are referred to as
Lipids and carbohydrates can both be used by animals to store energy
A phospholipid____ fatty acids attached to glycerol, where areas a fat has _____.
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ch. 3 LM
Chapter 3 Lecture Assignment