What happens when there is too much sorbitol in the lens of the eye?
Why is sorbitol not converted to fructose to limit cell damage?
Sorbitol is produced faster than it can convert to fructose. (diabetics) -cannot leave cell-toxic -leads to cell lysis and loss of function -peripheral tissue cells -peripheral nerves -blood vessel cells -pancreas -kidneys
What tissue uses lactate for energy?
-Liver-50% -Kidneys -Muscles -neurons (provided from RBCs, seritoli cells, astrocytes,muscles)
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of _____.
Glycogen -fasting state -muscle contraction
What enzyme starts the breakdown of glycogen by breaking the a-1,4 bonds
Glycogen Phosphorolase -pyridoxal (b6) cofactor
What product is initially made when glycogen is split?
Two glucose-1-phosphate molecules
What enzyme goes into effect during glycogenolysis when there are only four glucose molecules left on a branch?
Debranching enzyme (4:4 transferase), then (a-1,6-amyloglucosidase)
What enzyme converts G-1-P to G-6-P during the last stage of glycogenolysis?
Where do the G-6-P molecules end up after glycogenolysis?
hepatitis exposure, transfusions, IV drug use, alcohol use, some meds, or family history -increase AST -prolonged PT -blood test will specify
How to treat jaundice caused by sickle cell anemia
-increase iron in diet or supplements
Tests to run to diagnose Jaundice
-CBC -plasma bilirubin-conjugated and total -Liver Panel-AST, ALT, ALP, GGT -measurement of coagulation time (PT)
What disease is marked by a unconjugated bilirubin level that rarely exceeds 50?
Gilbert's -low UDP-glucuronyltransferase -enzyme for conjugation -inherited
Causes of Intra-hepatic Jaundice in Newborns
-Immature Liver Cells-can't conjugate or might leak into intestine -unconjugation in intestine by B-glucuronidase -re-enters bloodstream -RBC destruction - maternal IgG problems or conversion to adult Hb
What is the most common type of neonatal jaundice?
What is the most severe form of Jaundice in newborns?
Pathological(Kernicterus) serum>300 of U-B -no C-B in urine -U-B and no uribilinogen in Meconium
What are some causes of post-hepatic obstructive jaundice?