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Exam 1: Focus areas
Terms in this set (107)
The intracellular fluid has a sodium ion concentration of ___
The intracellular fluid has a potassium ion concentration of ___
The extracellular fluid has a sodium ion concentration of ___
The extracellular fluid has a potassium ion concentration of ___
What is the sodium/potassium ATPase pump responsible for?
Maintaining the concentration gradient for sodium and potassium
How many sodium ions are transported out of the cell with the ATPase pump?
How many potassium ions are transported out of the cell with the ATPase pump?
What is the first step in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger system?
A first messenger attaches to the receptor, and that receptor protein then changes shape and activates the G-protein.
What is the second step in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger system?
The activated Gs-protein activates its effective protein which is known as the enzyme adenylyl cyclase or adenylate cyclase.
What is the third step in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger system?
The activated adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the conversion of some cytosolic ATP molecules into cyclic AMP (cAMP) which is the second messenger.
What is the fourth step in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger system?
cAMP activates a protein kinase known as protein kinase A, and this protein kinase will catalyze the phosphorylation of other proteins which ultimately leads to the cellular response.
What controls cAMP?
Acetylcholine is synthesized from which two molecules?
Acetyl coenzyme A and choline using the enzyme choline acetyle transferase or ChAT
Where is Acetyl CoA found?
Where does choline come from?
Diet or recycled acetylcholine
Where is ChAT found?
Only in cholinergic neurons
ACh is released into the synaptic cleft, and broken down by ___?
What kind of channels are nicotinic ACh receptors?
Ligand-gated sodium and potassium ion channels (excitatory)
What kind of receptors bind ACh and nicotine?
Nicotinic ACh receptors (N-ACh)
In the brain, N-ACh receptors are important for ___
Cognition and reward
Muscarinic receptors are activators for ___
Which kind of receptor binds ACh and muscarine (mushroom toxin)?
Muscarinic ACh receptors (M-ACh)
How does an AChE inhibitor such as sarin (a nerve gas), effect the body?
ACh builds up in the synaptic cleft which initially causes and overstimulation of ACh receptors causing spasms, and then desensitizes them causing paralysis.
Biogenic amines are synthesized from ___
Amino acids and contain an amino group (R-NH2)
What are some examples of catecholamines?
Dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine
Catecholamines are synthesized from the amino acid ___
Tyrosine when the axon terminal reuptakes it
Tyrosine is then converted into ___
L-dopa is then converted to ___
Dopamine is converted into
Norepinephrine is converted into
Biogenic amines are ___
Catecholamines and serotonin
Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid ___
Serotonin regulates ___
Mood and feelings of well-being
How is serotonin removed from synapses?
Selective transporters or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Amino acid neurotransmitters are broken into ___
Excitatory and inhibitory amino acids
Excitatory amino acids are involved in ___
Learning, memory, neural development, and are extremely common in the brain
What are two examples of excitatory amino acids?
Aspartate and glutamate
Inhibitory amino acids are involved in ___
What are two of the most common inhibitory amino acids?
Glycine and GABA or gamma-aminobutryic acid
Neuropeptides are composed of ___
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Where are many of the neuropeptides found?
What are some examples of gas neurotransmitters?
Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide
Examples of purines are ___
ATP and its component molecules adenosine
The forebrain includes the ___
Cerebrum and diencephalon
The cerebellum is located on the ___ side of the brain
The brainstem includes the ___
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
What of the parts of the brain is the most advanced?
The cerebrum is on the ___ of the forebrain
The cerebrum contains the ___
The lobes of the cerebral cortex are the ___ lubes
Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
The cortex controls ___
Higher functions such as perception, skilled movements, reasoning, learning, and memory
The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the ___
The infoldings of the cortex result in a surface area ___ that of the unfolded surface
The diencephalon lies ___ the cerebrum
The diencephalon consists of the ___
Thalamus and hypothalamus
The thalamus ___
Integrates information going to and from the cortext
The hypothalamus ___
The cerebellum is located on ___ part of the brain
The cerebellum is latin for ___
The functions of the cerebellum is primarily to control motor activities such as ___
Coordination, posture, and balance
Alcohol affects motor skills relatively quickly, this indicates that it affects the ___
The ___ is the most ancient brain region
All signals that pass between the spinal cord and the brain ___
Must travel through the brainstem
Running through the brainstem is a bundle of neurons called the ___
The reticular formation is the single part of the brain ___
That is absolutely essential for life
The reticular formation acts as an integrating center for the ___
Some functions of the reticular formation are ___
Posture, cardiovascular, respiratory, sleep/wake cycle, and attention
Gray matter contains ___
Interneurons and cell bodies of efferent neurons
White matter contains ___
Afferent neurons enter the spinal cord through the ___ side of the cord
Dorsal or back
Afferent neurons enter the spinal cord via ___
Cell bodies of the afferent neurons are located in the ___
Dorsal root ganglia
Efferent neurons exit the spinal cord on the ___ side
Ventral or front
Efferent neurons exit the spinal cord via ___
Afferent and efferent axons of the PNS travel in ___
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Spinal nerves are classified by the ___
Level of the body that they innervate
The major spinal levels are the ___
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
Meninges are categorized into three groups, they are ___
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
Dura mater is the ___
Outermost layer of the meninges
Arachoid mater is the ___
Middle layer of the meninges
Pia mater is the ___
Deepest layer of the meninges
The subarachnoid space is filled with ___
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which protects the soft tissues from damage and supplies nutrients
CSF also fills four interconnected cavities in the brain called the ___
CSF is made in the ___
CSF ultimately enters the bloodstream through the ___
Top surface of the brain
The CSF is made by very specialized epithelial cells in the lateral ventricle walls called the ___
Ependymal cells line the ___
Ventricles and regulate the flow of CSF through the ventricles using their cilia
If the flow of the CSF is obstructed, fluid can accumulate, causing ___
In the brain, cells that line the small capillaries prevent unrestricted diffusion, this is referred to as the ___
Water-soluble molecules in the blood are selectively allowed to enter the brain interstitium by ___
Specific transport mechanisms in the cells lining blood vessels
Lipid-soluble molecules can ___
Diffuse across the membranes
The efferent division of the PNS can be subdivided into the ___
Somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
The somatic nervous system innervate ___
The autonomic nervous system innervate ___
Smooth and cardiac muscles, glands, and the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes referred to as the "involuntary" nervous system
Ganglions are ___
Integration centers or "little brains"
The somatic NS is composed of the nerve fibers that run ___
From the CNS to skeletal muscles
In the somatic NS, the cell bodies of neurons are located in the ___
Brainstem or spinal cord
In the somatic NS, these cholinergic neurons are called ___
Motor neurons release ___
In the SNS, acetylcholine binds to ___
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (N-AChR)
Activation of N-AChRs causes ___
Contraction of skeletal muscles
When large axons reach from the CNS to the muscles without making any other synapses, the pathway is said to be ___
The autonomic nervous system includes the three divisions ___
Sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric division
The synapses between these neurons are in a cell body cluster called ___
The nerve fibers passing between the CNS and the ganglia are called ___
The nerve fibers passing between the ganglia and the effector cells are called ___
The autonomic NS differs from the somatic in that ___
Somatic nerve fibers can only excite or contract skeletal muscles, but autonomic nerve fibers can either excite or inhibit tissue activity
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