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Chapter 14 - Renal
Terms in this set (41)
Each of the following is involved in some way with blood filtration except:
the peritubular capillaries.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is
composed of juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa and the site of renin secretion.
Which of the following would be likely to increase GFR?
Increasing efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction.
Water, reabsorbed into the blood returns to the bloodstream via
Which of the following statements regarding Na+ transport is correct?
The transport of Na+ across the apical membrane of the nephron is an active transport process.
Stimulation of renin secretion will increase the:
Volume of the extracellular fluid (ECF)
Which of the following factors best explains an increase in glomerular filtration rate?
Increased glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure.
Blood pressure is increased when:
Sympathetic activation decreases the diameter of arterioles systematically.
At which portion of the nephron does aldosterone exert its effect?
the distal convoluted tubule.
During the production of urine, the nephron controls the composition of urine by all of the following physiological processes EXCEPT:
filtration to leave Na+ in blood.
Sodium is actively reabsorbed from the renal tubule in which of the following nephron segments?
proximal tubule, distal tubule, and the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Which of the following occurs in response to low blood pressure?
increased water retention due to ADH release from the pituitary gland and systemic vasoconstriction.
The nerves that innervate the kidney are essential for regulating which of the following?
none of the above.
Which of the following would be expected to cause renal inulin (or creatinine) clearance to increase?
dilation of the afferent arteriole and constriction of the efferent arteriole.
Drinking vodka would be expected to cause excretion of a
large volume of dilute urine.
An increased secretion of renin would be expected to have what effect on sodium excretion and potassium excretion in urine?
decrease Na+ excretion and increase K+ excretion.
The amount of a substance that is excreted in the urine is equal to the amount that is _______ plus the amount that is _______ minus the amount that is ________.
filtered; secreted; reabsorbed
The countercurrent multiplier system of the kidney
allows the kidneys to form hypertonic urine; requires that all the collecting ducts be near the loop of Henle; requires active transport of sodium and chloride out of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle; would not function if the ascending limb of the loop of Henle were freely permeable to water.
triggers insertion of aquaporins into the luminal membranes of collecting ducts.
A person who is unable to synthesize vasopressin
will excrete a hypotonic urine.
Which of the following most accurately describes the actions of aldosterone?
Aldosterone increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion in the cortical collecting ducts.
Which of the following statements regarding glomerular filtration is correct?
It will occur when the hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus exceeds the sum of the fluid pressure in the capsule plus the osmotic force due to proteins in the plasma.
Renal tubular cells may
Both actively transport molecules across their basolateral membranes in order to secrete the molecules into the tubular lumen and synthesize substances in order to secrete them into the tubular lumen are correct.
Compared to a normal person, a person experiencing metabolic acidosis will have
increased renal secretion of hydrogen ion and increased renal reabsorption of bicarbonate ion
Because of the countercurrent multiplier system in the loop of Henle and the proximity to it of the medullary collecting ducts,
hyperosmotic urine is generated by active salt reabsorption through membranes that are relatively impermeable to water and the diffusion of water through membranes responsive to vasopressin.
Which of the following most accurately describes the renal transport of sodium ion?
Primary active transport of sodium ion allows for secondary active transport of glucose and hydrogen ions in the proximal tubule.
A decrease in the total body content of sodium causes
A concurrent decrease in plasma volume, which induces a decrease in GFR and an increase in sodium reabsorption.
Which of the following would increase the excretion of sodium and water?
Increased hydrostatic pressure in the afferent renal arterioles, increased mean arteriole blood pressure, and increased arterial distension.
Formation of a highly concentrated urine is dependent upon
elevated levels of vasopressin in the plasma and elevated levels of aldosterone in the plasma.
After prolonged exertion in a hot climate, baroreceptors would ______ firing, leading to _______ secretion of ______ and thus ______ renal reabsorption of _____.
Decrease; increased; vasopressin; increased; water
Renal regulation of extracellular H+ concentration is dependent upon regulating
the amount of hydrogen ion secreted by the kidneys and the amount of bicarbonate ion excreted by the kidneys.
Which of the following about renal control of blood acid/base balance is true?
Increased metabolism of glutamine by renal tubular cells increases the plasma bicarbonate concentration
The reabsorption of glucose from the renal tubular lumen into the cells:
depends on the presence of Na+ in the filtrate.
Renal autoregulation explains changes in resistance to blood flow without the involvement of the nervous system. The major site of autoregulatory resistance changes is the:
Which of the following statements correctly describes glucose reabsorption by the kidney?
secondary active cotransport at the luminal membrane.
Which of the following statements that refers to the glomerulus is correct?
It contains no active transport systems that produce an important effect on the composition of filtrate.
Which of the following increases formation of both ADH and Angiotensin?
Which of the following factors best explains an increase in the GFR?
Increased glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure.
As Na+ and H2O are decreased, the plasma volume ______ causing the venous pressure to _____. This leads to a ______ in stroke volume and thus cardiac output which will _______ arterial blood pressure. When the arterial blood pressure decreases, this ______ renal sympathetic nerves to fire resulting in the _______ constricture of the afferent renal arteries which ______ the glomerular filtration pressure leading to the ______ in GFR thus _______ the secretion of Na+ and H2O.
decrease; decrease; decrease; decrease' increase; increase; decrease; decrease; decrease.
What happens to Na+ and H2O excretion when the plasma volume decreases? There is a ______ in renal sympathetic nerve firing, a ______ in arterial pressure, and a _______ in GFR, ______ the flow to the macula densa. This all leads to the _______ in Angiotensin II which causes the ______ in aldosterone levels. In the collecting ducts the reabsorption of Na+ and H2O ______ causing the ______ in Na+ and H2O excretion.
increase; decrease; decrease; decrease; increase; increase; increase; decrease.
What happens when plasma volume increases? The atria distends causing an ______ in atrial natriuetic peptide causing the kidneys afferent arterioles to dilate ______. The GFR thus ______ Na+ excretion. As the plasma volume decreases and the plasma concentration of K+ increases the effect is to ______ the concentration of Angiotensin II. This results in the adrenal cortex to ______ the secretion of aldosterone which causes the collecting ducts to ______ Na+ reabsorption and K+ thus causing a _______ in Na+ excretion and an ______ in K+ excretion.
increase; increase; increase; increase; increase; increase; decrease; increase.
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