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geography lecture 34
Terms in this set (76)
the study of the distribution of plants and their ecosystems, both spatially and temporarily
what are the five biogeochemical cycles?
water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
important elements to organisms are cycled between the nonliving and living components of the environment
the collection, purification, and distribution of the earth's water supply through both the abiotic and biotic components of the environment
what are the four parts of the hydrologic cycle?
evapotranspiration, condensation, precipitation, and run-off
water flow adds to __ in one place and ___ in another
the hydrologic cycle is a major what?
medium for transporting nutrients and purification of the water supply
the flow of carbon, primarily as carbon dioxide, through the environment
what are two key elements associated with the carbon cycle?
controlling the temps at the earth's surface/greenhouse gas; forms organic molecules and compounds
carbon is removed from the air by ___ to make ___
plants/producers, complex carbohydrates
carbon is produced during ___, primarily by ___, and is released back into the air
aerobic respiration, animals
carbon is stored as an ____
energy source in form of fossil fuels
__ and __ cycle are in a similar fashion to the carbon cycle
the movement of nitrogen, in various chemical forms, through the environment
nitrogen is an important element for organisms, but what is its most abundant form?
cannot be absorbed and used directly as a nutrient by plants and animals
N2 is broken down by what two things? what converts it into useful compounds?
lightening strikes and certain bacteria, aquatic systems
what are the four steps that convert N2 into useful compounds?
nitrogen fixation, nitrification, ammonification, and denitrification
process in which specialized bacteria convert N2 into ammonia that can be used by plants
process in which the ammonia in soil is converted to nitrite ions by aerobic bacteria, which are taken up by plants and then animals eat the plants and get their nitrogen
conversion of nitrogen rich compounds into ammonia
conversion of ammonia back into N2 and released back into the atmosphere
cycles through the water, lithosphere, and living organisms
what is phosphorus commonly found as?
why is phosphorus a limiting factor for plant growth?
because there are low levels in soils and agricultural activities are needed
what do increased amount of phosphorus in the soil cause?
increased plant growth which leads to oxygen depletion
what are the three compounds that sulfur is seen cycling through the earth in?
hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfate salts
form of sulfur that comes from the decay of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria
form of sulfur that comes from volcanoes
form of sulfur that comes from sea spray
human activities account for _% of all sulfur compounds and _% of SO2 reaching the atmosphere
broadest, justifiable division of plants and animals that forms a regional ecological unit
what are the three basic categories/types of biomes?
deserts, grasslands, and forests
dominated by tall, closely spaced broad leaf evergreen trees
tropical rainforest is a well developed __ canopy and is within the _ climate areas
3 layer, af
which has the highest biodiversity of any terrestrial environment?
tropical deciduous forest
less dense canopy than tropical rainforest and lose leaves because a lack of water
what climate areas are the tropical deciduous forests in?
am and aw, meaning there is a dry period
grassland transition zone between the tropical rainforest, the tropical deciduous forest, and desert biomes
savanna is dominated by and is in what climate?
tall grassland with widely spaced trees, aw
what is an example of a plant from the tropical savanna?
acacia trees of eastern africa
sparse vegetation or none at all due to low precipitation and high evapotranspiration
vegetation in the desert is __ and an example is?
tropical and mid-latitude deserts differentiate in what two things?
climate and vegetation
what are the climate areas for the desert?
bw and bs
dominated by sod-forming grasses
grassland has areas of both short grass and long grass, known as a ?
what are three examples of a grassland?
great plains, pampas, russian steppe
grassland is a mixture of _ climate and _ and _ drier areas.
bs, Cfa and Dfa
temperate/mid-latitude deciduous and mixed forest
dominated by broadleaf deciduous trees and can be mixed with needle leaf evergreen trees
where are mixed forests found? where are the trees seen?
Southeast US; eastern US, europe, and eastern china
what are four examples of trees in mixed forests?
oak, birch, walnut, and maple
what are the climate areas in mixed forests?
Cfa and Dfa
needle-leaf trees of US northwest coast
what is the temperate rainforest also known as?
temperate evergreen forest
what are some plant examples seen in the temperate rainforest?
redwoods, douglas fir, sitka spruce
what is the climate of temperate rain forests?
consists of widely spaced evergreen trees and hard or waxy leaved evergreen bushes
what is the climate type of med scrub and what is it dominated by?
Csa, cyclic fire disturbance
what is an example of a mediterranean scrub?
chaparral of coastal california
northern coniferous forest
dominated by coniferous or cone-bearing trees
what is the boreal forest?
a coniferous forest in canada
what is the taiga?
a coniferous forest in siberia
what are the climates of northern coniferous forests?
Dfb, Dfc, and Dfd
what are some examples of plants found in northern coniferous forests?
spruce, hemlock, fir, pine, and larch
dominated by mosses, lichens, and a few dwarf trees
the tundra is controlled by __ and is in the __ climate area
a somewhat predictable process in which one set or assemblage of plant species replaces an existing assemblage and happens over a long period of time
primary succession and secondary succession are differentiated by what?
the starting conditions of the site
sequential development of communities in a bare area that has never been occupied or that has been recently denuded of an existing community
sequential development of communities in an area in which vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed
which succession is faster?
what are the three subtypes of plant succession?
linear autogenic succession, cyclic autogenic, and allogenic
linear autogenic succession
a one-way succession such that a particular stage or assemblage is not repeated
stages or assemblages can be repeated or skipped and often are
change in composition brought about by outside forces or disturbances like fire, disease, flood, etc
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