How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

104 terms

Literary Bible

STUDY
PLAY
Allegory
the representation of ideas or moral principles by means of symbolic characters, events, or objects
Alliteration
repetition of a consonant sound to create rhythm and aid memory
Allusion
a brief reference to a historical or literary person, place, object, or event
Analogy
comparison of 2 similar thigs to suggest that if they are alike in some respects, they are probably alike in other ways as well
anecdote
a short narrative tht tells the particulars of an interesting and/or humorous event
antagonist
person or thing that poopses the protagonist or hero of a story
apostrophe
a figure of speech where someone (usually absent or dead), an object, some abstract quality, or a nonexistent person is directly addressed as though present and real
blank verse
unrhymed, but otherwise regular verse, usually iambic pentameter
caricature
representation or imitation of a person's physical or personality traits that are so exaggerated they become comic or absurd
characterization
creation of imaginary persons so that they seem lifelike
cliche
a word or phrase that is so overused that it is no longer effective in most writing situations
climax
a high point or turning point in a place or literature, the point at which the rising action reverses and becomes the falling action of denouement
coherence
parts of a composition should be arranged in a logical and ordeerly manner so that the meaning and ideas are clear and intellgible
conflict
problem or struggle that the characters have to solve or some to grips with by the end of the story
connotation
emotions/feelings that surround a word; they may be negative, neutral, positive, depending on their context
context
enviroment of a word , the words that surround a partiular word and help to determine it's meaning
couplet
in poetry (verse), two consecutive lines that rhhyme
critique
critical examination of a work of art to determine how it measures up to established standards
denotation
literal or basic meaning of a word
denouement
resolution or outcome of a play or story
dialogue
conversation between two or more characters in a work of literature
diction
writer's choice of words based on their clarity and effectiveness
drama
story told by actors who play the characters and reveal the conflict throught their actions and dialogue
editorial
short essay in a newspaper or magazine that expresses the opinion of the writer
elegy
formal poen that mediates on a solemn theme
empathy
when you put yourself in someone elses place and imagine how that perwwson must feel
epic
long narrative poem about the deeds of a great hero that reflects the values of the society that produced it
epitaph
short verse or poem in memory of someone
essay
piece of prose that expresses an individuals point of view; it is a series of closely related paragraphs that discuss a single topic
eulogy
formal speech praising a person or thing
euphemism
when you replace one word or phrase for another in order to avoid being offensive
exposition
intro section of a play or novel that provides backround info on setting, characters, and plot
fable
brief tale that usesanimals as charachters and teaches a moral lesson
falling action
last section of a play or story that works out the decision arrived at during the climax
farce
literature that has essentially one purpose, to make the audience laugh; farce often depends less on plat and character than on improbable situations
figurative language
expressive languagage that is written to create a special effect or feeling
flashback
insetion of a scene or event that took place in the past for the purpose of making something int he present more clear
foil
term is applied to any person who, through contrast, underscores the distinctive characteristics of another
foreshadowing
suggestion or hint of events to come later in a literary work
free verse
verse written without rhyme, meter, or regular rhythm
genre
a french word that means type or form of literature
hamartia
the error, frailty, mistaken judgement, or misstep through which the fortunes of a tragic hero are reversed
heroic couplet
two consecutive lines of rhymed verse writen in iambic pentameter
historical fiction
fiction whoose setting is in some time other than that in which it is written
hyperbole
type of figurative language that makes an overstatement for the purpose of emphasis
iambic pentameter
line of poetry that contains fice iambic feet; an iamb is a foot consisting of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable
imagery
use of descriptive words or phrases to created vived mental pictures in the minds of the reader, often appealing to sight, sound, taste, or smell
irony:dramatic
when the audience know more than the characters on stage , which creates tension
irony:situational
a situation or event that is th eopposite of what is or might be expected
irony:verbal
expression of an attitude or intention thatis the opposite of what is actually meant
legend
a narrative or tradition handed down from the past; distinguished from a myth by having more hostorical truth and perhaps less of the supernatural
limerick
form of light verse that follows a definite rhyme scheme where the first, second, and fifth linds rhyme and the third and fourth lines rhyme (patterns may vary)
lyric
short poem that expresses rthe personal feelings and thoughts of a single speaker
malapropism
when two words become jumbled in the mind of a speaker because they resemble each other and he/she uses the wrong one
melodrama
an exaggerated, sensational form of drama which is intended to appeal to the emotions of the audience
metaphor
comparison of two dissimilar things
direct metaphor
when the writer directly states both of the things being compared
indirect metaphor
when the writer states of the the things and the reader must infer the other
meonymy
the substitution of an obect closely associated with a word for the word itself
mood
feeling a piece of literature arouses in the reader
motif
recurring ideas, images, and actions that tend to unify a work
myth
a traditional story that presents supernatural beings and situations that attempt to explain and/or interpret natural events
narrator
the person who is telling the story
novel
covering a wide range of prose materials which have two common characteristics: they are fictional and lengthy
objective
when a writer makes every attempt to simply present the facts, without opinion or bias
onomatopoeia
type of figurative language in which words sound like the things they name
oxymoron
a self-contadictory combination of words ( usually paired )
parable
short descriptive story whose purpose is to illustrate a lesson or moral
paradox
a statement that at first seems contradictory, but infact, reveeals a truth
parody
when a writer imitates an already existing form for the purpose of humor
personification
a type of figurative language that gives animate ( living ) characteristics to inamate ( nonliving ) things
plot
the action of a story; all of the events that occur from the beginning to the end
point of view
from whose angle the story is being told
first person
when a character in the story tells the story using "I" or "We" ( NF or F )
second person
used in nonfiction, promarily for the purpose of writing instructions or directions, using "you" ( NF )
third person
whe the marrator is tellikng the events from "outside" the story from a neutral or unemotional view point, using "he" "she", etc. ( F or NF )
omniscient
when the narrator can see into the hearts and minds of more than one of the characters in the story ( F )
limited omniscient
when the narrator can see into the mind and heart of only one of the characters in the story ( F or NF )
protagonist
the main character in a work; the action revolves around this person and against the antagonist ( opposing force )
pseudonym
means "false name" and is used by some writers instead of their real name
pun
word or phrase which has a "double meaning" as intended by the writer; often these words sound the same ( or nearly the same ) but have different meanings
repetition
repeating a word or group of words for emphasis or effect
resolution
portion of a play or story when the problem is solved
rhetorical question
a question asked only for effect or to make a statement, but not to get an answer
rising action
portion of a play after the initial incident ( introduction of the conflict ) where the action is complicated by the opposing forces ending with the climax; in a novel, play, or movie, the rising action moves the story along and the plot usually becomes more complicated
satire
type of writing that usues humor, irony, or wit to make a point
setting
the time and place of a story, which usually plays an important role in the events that occur
short story
a relatively brif fictional narrative in prose ( 5,000-12,00 words )
simile
a comparison using "like" or "as"
soliloquy
long speech given by a character alone on stage that reveals his/her innermost thoughts and feelings
sonnet
poem of fourteen lines written in iambic pentameter that follows one of several rhyme schemes
stereotype
this is a pattern or form which does not change; this term is applied to oversimplified mental pictures or judgments
structure
this is the orangization or planned framework that a writer creates for his/her piece of litrature
style
this refers to how the author writes ( form ) rather than what he/she writes ( content )
subjective
when a writer inserts opinion or bias into the piece of writing
symbolism
symbol is something that stands for something larger than itself
synecdoche
figure of speech in which a part represents the whole or when the whole represents the part
syntax
arrangement of words within a phrase, clause or sentence. Factors such as the type of sentence, th euse of punctuation, and the use of language patterns can all contribute to an effective use of syntax.
theme
a statement of the central idea of a piece of writing
tone
attitude of the author torward his/her subject and audience
classical tragedy
dramatic work where a noble hero's tragic flaw causes him/her to break a moral law that leads to his/her downfall
modern tragedy
dramatic work where the hero is often an ordinary person who faces circumstances with dignity and courage of spirit
unity
piece of writing is organized so that all of its parts belong and are well integrated
writer's voice
writer's awareness and effective use of such elements as diction, tone, syntax, unity, coherence and audience to create a clear and distinct "personality of the writer"