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59 terms

UNIT 4 Chemistry of Life Objectives

STUDY
PLAY
List the top 4 most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things.
CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
List the next 5 important elements needed by living organisms.
SPICKS (Sulfur, Phosphorus, Iron, Calcium, Sodium)
A component of some amino acids
Sulfur
A component of nucleotides in DNA/RNA
Phosphorus
has a role in oxygen transport
Iron
has a role in nerve impulses in animals, maintaining metabolism with bacteria, osmotic balance in most plants.
Sodium
What property allows a water bug to float on the surface of the water, and allows plants to transport water through their tissues.
Cohesive Property
What property allows osmosis and the transport of the nutrients around the body.
Solvent Property
Using water as a coolant-Body heat being absorbed by the water molecules evaporating to reduce body temperature.
Or how ponds, lakes or oceans have less variation in temperature.
Thermal Property
Any element that contains carbon except when it is paired with oxygen.
Organic Compound
.
Amino Acid
.
Glucose
.
Ribose
.
Fatty Acid
Glucose, Galactose and Fructose are
Monosaccharides
Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose are
Disaccharides
Starch, Glucose, and Cellulose are
Polysaccharides
Respiratory Substrate in animals?
Glucose
Insoluble storage polymer in animals?
Glycogen
Milk sugar in animals?
Lactose
Fruit Sugar in plants?
Fructose
Soluble, metabolically inactive,transported in phloem sap in plants?
Sucrose
Insoluble, structural fibers of plant cell walls in plants?
Cellulose
Have the function of energy storage, thermal insulation, and buoyancy.
Lipids
In Energy Storage
*Easily digested.
*Energy released faster.
*Soluble in water.
*Easy to move and store.
Carbs
In Energy Storage
*More energy per gram
*Insoluble in water (No osmosis problems)
*More Oxygen per molecule
*Only good for low energies
Lipids
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
Ribose and deoxyribose
Three components of a DNA building block?
Phosphate, Ribose sugar, base.
State the names of the four bases in DNA
CTAG (Cytosine, thymine, adenine Guanine)
*Amino acids in a polypeptide chain
1 Structure
*Formed by hydrogen bonds
*Helix shape
(2 Structure) Alpha Helix
*Folding shape
*Polypeptide chain more stretched out.
*sheet has twists that increase strength.
(2 Structure) Beta Pleated Sheet
What connects the alpa and beta helix, often active sites of enzymes?
(2 Structure) Open Loops
*Polypeptides fold
*Hydrogen and Ionic Bonds
3 Structure
*Tertiary Polypeptides fold together
4 Structure
*Water soluble
*Long and narrow
*Strength and support in tissues
*Collagen
*Most common in animals
*Keratin in hair and nails
Fibrous
*Near soluble
*Pigment and Transport proteins
*Immune system
*Antibodies like haemoglobin and Immunoglobulin
Globular
.
Polar Amino Acid
.
Non-polar Amino Acid
4 functions of protiens
Hormone, Immunoglobulin, Enzyme, Gas Transport
bring about the uptake of glucose across the cell membrane and the storage of glucose as the insoluble polymer glycogen.
Hormone
Produced by the plasma cells in an immune response to an infectious antigen.
Immunoglobulin
reduce the energy of activation and allows a biochemical reaction to reach equilibrium more quickly.
Enzyme
Haemoglobin molecules transport oxygen to respiring tissues.
Gas Transport
Metabolic pathways: Each stage has it's own ____.
Enzyme
Metabolic pathways: _____ Pathways breakdown molecules.
Catabolic
Metabolic pathways:____ pathways build up molecules.
Anabolic
Glycolysis is what kind of metabolic pathway?
Chain
Krebs cycle and Calvin cycle are what kind of metabolic pathway?
Cyclic
replaced the "Lock and Key" hypothesis
Induced-Fit Model
These reactions use enzymes to lower the activation energy, releasing more energy than the activation energy.
Exergonic Reactions
When an inhibitor binds to the active site and blocks the substrate. If there are too many substrates, more inhibitors will be made.
Competitive
Reduces rate of reaction, but does not bind to active site, changes shape of active site.
Non-competitive
Substances that reduce or completely stop the action of an enzyme.
Inhibitor
If there is an excess of end product, then it switches off until it is balanced again.
End-Product
Parts of a molecule that contain _____ amino acids are hydrophilic and can exist in contact with water.
Polar
______ amino acids allow the protein to site within the phospholipid bilayer.
Non-polar
The lining of the channel itself has _____ amino acids to allow the diffusion of charged molecules and ions.
Polar
_____ amino acids within the active site of an enzyme allow a chemical interaction between the substrate and the enzyme to reduce the activation energy.
Polar