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List the top 4 most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things.

CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)

List the next 5 important elements needed by living organisms.

SPICKS (Sulfur, Phosphorus, Iron, Calcium, Sodium)

A component of some amino acids


A component of nucleotides in DNA/RNA


has a role in oxygen transport


has a role in nerve impulses in animals, maintaining metabolism with bacteria, osmotic balance in most plants.


What property allows a water bug to float on the surface of the water, and allows plants to transport water through their tissues.

Cohesive Property

What property allows osmosis and the transport of the nutrients around the body.

Solvent Property

Using water as a coolant-Body heat being absorbed by the water molecules evaporating to reduce body temperature.
Or how ponds, lakes or oceans have less variation in temperature.

Thermal Property

Any element that contains carbon except when it is paired with oxygen.

Organic Compound


Amino Acid


Fatty Acid

Glucose, Galactose and Fructose are


Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose are


Starch, Glucose, and Cellulose are


Respiratory Substrate in animals?


Insoluble storage polymer in animals?


Milk sugar in animals?


Fruit Sugar in plants?


Soluble, metabolically inactive,transported in phloem sap in plants?


Insoluble, structural fibers of plant cell walls in plants?


Have the function of energy storage, thermal insulation, and buoyancy.


In Energy Storage
*Easily digested.
*Energy released faster.
*Soluble in water.
*Easy to move and store.


In Energy Storage
*More energy per gram
*Insoluble in water (No osmosis problems)
*More Oxygen per molecule
*Only good for low energies


What are the two types of nucleic acids?

Ribose and deoxyribose

Three components of a DNA building block?

Phosphate, Ribose sugar, base.

State the names of the four bases in DNA

CTAG (Cytosine, thymine, adenine Guanine)

*Amino acids in a polypeptide chain

1 Structure

*Formed by hydrogen bonds
*Helix shape

(2 Structure) Alpha Helix

*Folding shape
*Polypeptide chain more stretched out.
*sheet has twists that increase strength.

(2 Structure) Beta Pleated Sheet

What connects the alpa and beta helix, often active sites of enzymes?

(2 Structure) Open Loops

*Polypeptides fold
*Hydrogen and Ionic Bonds

3 Structure

*Tertiary Polypeptides fold together

4 Structure

*Water soluble
*Long and narrow
*Strength and support in tissues
*Most common in animals
*Keratin in hair and nails


*Near soluble
*Pigment and Transport proteins
*Immune system
*Antibodies like haemoglobin and Immunoglobulin



Polar Amino Acid


Non-polar Amino Acid

4 functions of protiens

Hormone, Immunoglobulin, Enzyme, Gas Transport

bring about the uptake of glucose across the cell membrane and the storage of glucose as the insoluble polymer glycogen.


Produced by the plasma cells in an immune response to an infectious antigen.


reduce the energy of activation and allows a biochemical reaction to reach equilibrium more quickly.


Haemoglobin molecules transport oxygen to respiring tissues.

Gas Transport

Metabolic pathways: Each stage has it's own ____.


Metabolic pathways: _____ Pathways breakdown molecules.


Metabolic pathways:____ pathways build up molecules.


Glycolysis is what kind of metabolic pathway?


Krebs cycle and Calvin cycle are what kind of metabolic pathway?


replaced the "Lock and Key" hypothesis

Induced-Fit Model

These reactions use enzymes to lower the activation energy, releasing more energy than the activation energy.

Exergonic Reactions

When an inhibitor binds to the active site and blocks the substrate. If there are too many substrates, more inhibitors will be made.


Reduces rate of reaction, but does not bind to active site, changes shape of active site.


Substances that reduce or completely stop the action of an enzyme.


If there is an excess of end product, then it switches off until it is balanced again.


Parts of a molecule that contain _____ amino acids are hydrophilic and can exist in contact with water.


______ amino acids allow the protein to site within the phospholipid bilayer.


The lining of the channel itself has _____ amino acids to allow the diffusion of charged molecules and ions.


_____ amino acids within the active site of an enzyme allow a chemical interaction between the substrate and the enzyme to reduce the activation energy.


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