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B cells

Produce antibodies that enter the blood and react with the antigen.

T cells

Attack the antigen and aid the Humoral Response by presenting the Antigen to the B cell either directly or by macrophage stimulation. resulting in faster antibody production.


Antibodies produced by B cells that work against viruses, toxins, mark bacteria for destruction, by phagocytosis or complement proteins. IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD

Cytotoxic T cells

Directly attack offending cells by inserting enzymes into offending cell causing it to lyse. ***Important in fighting cancer and tumor cells


An altered immunologic response that results in damage or disease to the individual. (Allergy, autoimmunity,alloimmunity)


sensitivity to enviormental antigens. meds, bee stings, pollen. IgE activates mast cells releasing histamines. the host now sensitive.

Consequences of Histamine release

1. Uticaria: rash;hives,anaphylaxis dif breathing drop in BP,epinephrine,anti-antihistamines.


A disturbance in the immunological tolerance of self antigens.
-lupus, rheumatic fever, streptococci


Immune response against other tissue being placed into your body. response=hemolysis

Rejection of Organ Transplants

Hyperacute:premade antibodies of recipient attack vascular endothelial cells
Acute: days to months...cytotoxic and macrophages
Chronic: months to years...low level response..

Adaption of organisms evading immune system

Thick Capsules, bacterial toxins,bacteria replicate faster than IS can respond,viruses can hide, can alter antigenic determinants

Hallmark of Deficient Immune System

recurrent an unusual development of infection

Primary Vs Secondary deficiency

Primary=genetic rare inability to produce Ig's
Secondary=acquired as result of infection, cancer, aging

Other Secondary deficiency Factors

Normal: pregnancy, infancy, aging,
psychological: emotional trauma, eating disorders
nutritional insufficiencies: malignancies
medical treatments: surgical stress, radiation.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease

1. HIV virus entry into the human body through body fluids.
2. HIV docking with T helper receptor on cell
3. Viral DNA of RNA is transcribed into human DNA
4. Host DNA transcribed into protein synthesis messages to ribosomes
5. New virus built and release by infected cell

Compromised Interferences by treatments

1. Entrance Inhibitors
2. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
3. Intergrase inhibitors
4. protease inhibitors

Disease progression of HIV to AIDS

1.Viral load inversely related to CD4+T-cells
2.Eventual failure of Imm.Sys. leads to opportunistic infections
3.HIV+ status-->AIDS as a result of decreased CD4+T-cell count and infections.

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