About ___% of women over the age of 80 and men over age 60 have one or more narrowed coronary arteries.
The blood cells whose walls are thin enough to allow the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluid are _____.
carbon dioxide; oxygen
The blood in the arterioles and arteries of the pulmonary circuit is high in ____ and low in ____.
common iliac artery
The descending aorta divides near the brim of the pelvis to form the right and left ______
The pressure that remains in the systemic arterial system during ventricular relaxation is called _____ pressure.
A mass of interconnected cardiac muscle cells that act together as a group constitutes a ____ ______.
The ___ ___ is the potential space between the parietial and visceral pericardial membranes.
The apeical heartbeat is heard by listening between the 5th and 6th ribs about 7.5 cm left of midline.
Smaller branches of the coronary arteries have some anastomosis (branches/vessels) between vessels.
The visceral pericardium lines the pericardial cavity whereas the parietal pericardium covers the surface of the heart.
The SA node relays nerve impulses into the AV bundle of the interventricular septum and the AV node is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of the heart.
Capillary walls consist of a single layer of epithelial cells and they exchange substances in the blood for substances in the tissue fluid surrounding body cells.
The distribution of blood in capillaries pathways is largely controlled of the action of the precapillary sphincter.
Blood flow through a capillary is controlled by a precapillary sphincter which opens or closes due to the requirement of the cells the capillary supplies.
Lipid soluble substances diffuse through pores and capillary membranes whereas lipid insoluble substances diffuse through most areas of a capillary membrane.
Histamine increase capillaries membrane permeability which can result in an edemas and painful conditions.
Central venous pressure is the pressure in the inferior vena cava at the central point of the abdomen.
What does a pulmonary circuit do?
sends oxygen-depleted (deoxygenated) blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide
What does the systemic circuit do?
sends oxygen rich (oxygenated) blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes waste
When the ventricular walls contract what happens to the valves?
the mitral and tricuspid valves close
The loose fitting sac around the heart is called________.
fibrous pericardium (if not a choice then visceral pericardium (epicardium)) ??????
The skeleton of the heart consists of _____.
(fibrous of dense connective tissue or) fibrous rings to which the heart valves are attached
Which of the following is the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cava to the lungs?:
vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle,pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, lungs
The right atrium receives blood directly from _________.
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus
Atrial Natriuretic peptitde (ANP) is____?
a peptide hormone secreted from cells when increasing blood volume stretches muscle cells associated with the atria
What does ANP (Atrial Natriuretic peptide) do?
inhibits release of renin from the kidneys and of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex which increases secretion of sodium ions and water from the kidneys and lowered blood volume and blood pressure. Research is being conducted to use ANP as treatment for high blood pressure
In mitral valve prolapse (MVP), the mitral valve __________.
bulges into the left atrium during ventricular contraction
The pain of angina comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies the _________.
myocardial cells of oxygen
Which of the following is true about the heart?
the apex of the heart points downward at about the 5th intercostal space
epicardium- function and definition
protects the heart by reducing friction. Composed of a serous membrane that consists of connective tissue covered by epithelium, and it includes capillaries and nerve fibers
myocardium - function and definition
middle layer, composed of thick cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of the heart chambers, seperated by connective tissues richly supplied with blood capillaries, lymph capillaries, and nerve fibers
Which of the following layers of the heart and their functions are correctly matched?
epicardium, myocardium and endocardium know the difference
endocardium - function and definition:
consists of epithelium and connective tissue that contains mainly elastic and collagenous fibers. has blood vessels and specialized cardiac muscle fibers called purkinje fibers. lines all the heart chambers and covers the structures, such as heart valve. continuous with the inner lining of the blood vessels attached to the heart
Which of the following correctly matches the valve to its function? *** 557 what do they do!
tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, aortic valve
tricuspid valve -function
guards the atrioventricular orifice between the right atrium and the right ventricle. valve permits the blood to move from the right atrium into the right ventricle and prevents it from moving in the opposite direction aka atrioventricular valve
pulmonary valve -function
located between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk and opens when the right ventricle contracts. prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle aka semilunar
mitral valve - function
aka bicuspid valve, left atrioventricular valve. prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium from the left ventricle when ventricle contracts
aortic valve - function
located at the base of the aorta. opens to allow blood to leave the left ventricle as it contracts and prevents blood from backing up into the left ventricle aka semilunar
Blood flow to the right side of the heart muscle decreases due to constriction of the _______.
right coronary artery
Which of the following ways of an ECG pattern is/are correctly described? (QRS waves?) 568
P wave, T wave
Correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses.
SA node (pacemaker), AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers
Impulses that the vagus nerve carries to the heart. 568/569
parasympathetic fibers that decrease the heart rate
Listening with a stethoscope just to the right near the tip of the sternum, sounds come must distinctly from the ____.:
In a ECG pattern, a P wave is caused by _____.
depolarization of the atrial fibers that will lead to contraction of the atria?????568
In a ECG pattern, a T wave is caused by ____.
the electrical changes that accompany ventricular muscle fiber repolarization????568
In ECG pattern, the PQ interval indicates_____.
how long it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the SA node through the AV node
The effect on the heart of excess potassium ion concentration usually is _____.:
decreased rate and decreased force of contraction
A person warming up after being cold feels a warm rush as blood flows quickly to the peripheral appendages; nitric oxide is important to this situation because it ____.
relaxes the smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall
Because net inward pressure in the venular capillary ends is less than outward pressure in the arterial ends capillary, _____.
more fluid leaves the capillaries than returns
The mechanism that insures the volume of blood discharged from the heart is equal to the volume entering its chambers is the _____ law of the heart.
When venous pressure is too low, ____ stimulates smooth muscles in the walls of the veins to contract.
When smooth muscle in the walls of the veins are stimulated to contract, _____.:
blood pressure increases
Factors that increase heart rate and blood pressure are ____.
emotional responses, exercise, increase in body temperature, epinephrine secretion
Kidney disease can cause hypertension by ____.
activating the renin angiotensin mechanism, stimulating the secretion of aldosterone, increasing the retention of sodium and water, narrowing the lumens of renal blood vessels
The pulmonary trunk divides into right and left pulmonary arteries about ____ cm above its origin.
The external carotid arteries branch to structures in the _______.
scalp, face, jaw, base of the skull
The structures that contain chemoreceptors that detect blood concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen are _____.
Heart rate in a fetus is about ____, newborn is about ___, and in an adult is about ___.
145 or more beats per minute; 140 beats per minute; 70 (60-99) beats per minute
Sudden cardiac arrest can result from ___.:
an artery blocked with plaque, scar tissue from a previous heartache, acceleration of the heartbeat, an irregular heartbeat
A left ventricular assist device _____.
can often maintain cardiac function long enough for a heart to become available; allows patients to resume some activities and to increase physical fitness, some have enabled patients to survive with permanent ones implanted.
Bruce has colorectal cancer that has spread to his lymphatic system. He has been given a drug that is an angiogenesis inhibiter. The drug works by ____.:
keeping secondary tumors small
In the arterial disease atherosclerosis, ______.
plaque accumulates on the interior walls of the arteries, blood flow through effected arteries slows, risk of a thrombus or embolus increases, arteriosclerosis may develop
Astronauts returning to earth feel unsteady because ____.
blood volume dropped during prolonged exposure to microgravity so blood pressure is too low back on earth
Which of the following is NOT a normal response to physical exercise?:
increased blood flow to the abdominal viscera
Tim runs 5-8 miles a day, has an enlarged heart, and low heart rate and blood pressure; he most likely has a _____.:
very healthy cardiovascular system