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MIBO 2500 Chapter 5
Terms in this set (12)
removes microbes from air or liquid
Ex. HEPA filter
damages DNA. Destroys Proteins
Ex. UV Light (does not penetrate well)
Enveloped = lipid membrane
Naked = no membrane
Approaches of control for viruses.
- Sterilization - completely free of all microbes, including endospores and viruses (but not prions)* done through high heat and high pressure combination
- Disinfection - also called biocides, germicides, and bactericides. Close to sterilization but not complete b/c a small amount of microbes will remain. Designed to eliminate pathogens (create illness) but some viable microbes may remain.
- Pasteurization - brief heating to reduce spoilage organisms, destroys pathogens. (mostly food products)
- Preservation - the delaying of spoilage of foods by treating the food to inhibit bacterial growth. (bacteriostatic preservatives)
- Sanitization - substantially reduce microbial population to certain health standards. Do not kill everything, simply reducing. Not a specific level of control (don't attack one type of microbe over another.)
Selection of Microbial Control
Q: Choice of procedure for microbial control depends on factors such as?
- Area being used on
- Autoclaves require $, space, and training before use
- What type of organism are we trying to get rid of (some are resistant)?
Highly Resistant Microbes:
Bacterial Endospores: most resistant, only extreme heat or chemical treatments can destroy them.
Protozoan cysts and oocysts: resistant to disinfectant; excreted in feces; causes diarrheal disease if ingested.
Number of Microorganisms
- Decimal Reduction time (D value).
Ex.Starting at 10,000 cells, it takes 20 mins.
Q. What environment conditions of the human body could interfere with treatment?
For Hand Sanitizer, people often don't let them dry, touch other stuff, etc.
Types of Ricks of Infection
Medical Instruments categorized as:
Critical - Contact with body
Non-Critical - contacts unbroken skin only
Ex. blood pressure cuffs
Using heat to destroy microorganisms
Moist Heat: Irreversibly denatures proteins. More effective than dry heat at penetrating cells**. Because of this, you don't need as much heat or to use it as long.
- Pasteurization :HTST (high temp short time). UHT = Ultrahigh temp.
Dry Heat: Less effective than moist heat, takes more time, and requires higher temp (b/c less penetrative).
- Denatures proteins, oxidizes cell components.
Ex. Ovens, Incinerators
Using Chemicals to Destroy Microorganims
1. Alcohols: 60-80% aqueous solitions of isopropyl alcohol
- antiseptic (safe for tissue) and disinfectant
- damages lipid membranes and proteins.
- does not kill endospores and only some viruses. Kills veggie bacteria and fungi.
Ex. Chlorine Bleach
- damages DNA and attacks proteins. Can't be used on tissue.
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