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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Siberia & Auschwitz Final
Terms in this set (47)
Austrian who became the Nazi official who administered the concentration camps where millions of Jews were murdered during World War II. In charge of transportation of Jews and extermination. Fled to Argentina then later brought to Israel to be tried and executed. Only person to be executed by Israel.
head of the Reich Ministry of Propaganda and Popular Enlightenment, friend of Hitler, ensured that all teachers taught the teachings that agreed with the Nazi party, books burned if they did not agree with nazi party
Entrusted by Hitler with administration of the "Final Solution" to the Jewish Question. Head of SS (Gestapo) which oversaw the Death Camps.
SS Oversturmbannführer (Lt. Colonel)-- commandant at Auschwitz and later an inspector at concentration camps. Tried and executed.
was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe.
Four Year Plan
was a short-term national investment plan; a series of economic reforms created by the Nazi Party; sought to reduce unemployment; increase synthetic fibre production; undertake public works projects; increased automobile production; initiate numerous building and architectural projects; and further develop the Autobahn system; emphasized building up the nation's military defenses, in direct violation of the terms set by the Allies of World War I at the Treaty of Versailles
"Living Space"; A concept proposed by Friedrich Ratzel; he was interested in what would allow the state to thrive; Served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
When was the town of Auschwitz (Oswiecim) founded?
1270 (per page 11 in "Auschwitz")
When did Jewish settlement begin in Oswiecim?
"Mid fifteenth century" (page 33)
German noble family, consolidated their power after the Treaty of Westphalia by uniting some of the German states under their rule, established autocratic government (reduced the power of the Prussian nobles - junkers)
Frederick the Great
Frederick II; (1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress.
When was Germany unified
Why was Oscwiecim important in the early 20th Century
It offered excellent railway connections which allowed for a booming (albeit illegal) economy
An anti-Semitic social reformist and eugenicist who had a central role in launching the German Eugenics Movement. He wanted to merge eugenics and racial hygiene; uses science to unite Socialism and Nationalism. Believed in a hierarchy of races, no race was perfect, and the ideology of Biologic Social Reform- the weapon to reinvigorate the race. Achieving Utopia by using science and Eugenics.
What was the stab in the back theory?
The German idea that the reason they lost the war was some outside force or a traitor. They blamed it on the Jews.
What was the name of the Republic formed in Germany at the end of WWI
A set of ethical guidelines developed for research with human participants based on information gained during the trials at Nuremberg of Nazi scientists conducting experiments on people without their consent under coercion after WWII.
German Corporation that established a monopoly on chemical and pharmaceutical business through merging smaller companies
contained the large-scale killing apparatus at Auschwitz. It also housed thousands of concentration camp prisoners deployed at forced labor.
Also known as Auschwitz III. The camp was established in October 1942 by the SS at the behest of I.G. Farben executives to provide slave labor for their Buna-Werke (Buna Works) industrial complex. Monowitz was built as an workcamp, it also contained a Labor Education Camp for non-Jewish prisoners perceived not up to par with German work standards. It held approximately 12,000 prisoners, the great majority of whom were Jewish, but also carried non-Jewish criminals and political prisoners.
was a German Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain) near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937; one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
Prisoners from all over Europe and the Soviet Union—Jews, non-Jewish Poles and other Slavs, the mentally ill and physically-disabled from birth defects, religious and political prisoners, prisoners of war — worked primarily as forced labor in local armaments factories. From 1945 to 1950, the camp was used by the Soviet occupation authorities as an internment camp, known as NKVD special camp number 2.
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies
Final Solution. Use carbon Monoxide and Zyclon B to gas Jews.
order from Hitler to kill Soviet commanders if tehy were found in the group of captured war prisoners
Topf and Sons
Engineers of the 'Final Solution'
This domestic euthanasia program was lead by the Nazi party to exterminate the handicapped and those with generic diseases. It used before World War I to purge non-Aryan people to save Germany from its past disgraces and poor economic status. This forced sterilization was not yet racial persecution that would later characterize the Nazi Party's dealings with the Jews.
a campaign of the Third Reich to murder Nazi concentration camp prisoners. Also called "invalid" or "prisoner euthanasia", the campaign culled the sick, elderly and those deemed no longer fit for work from the rest of the prisoners in a selektion, after which, they were killed. The Nazi campaign was in operation from 1941-1944 and later covered other groups of concentration camp prisoners, as well.
A Nazi killing squad. The Einsatzgruppen mass-murdered Jews systematically, and buried them into pits or burned their bodies. This squad of police and former soldiers killed more than one million Jews, which is an astounding 20% of the total Jews killed in the Holocaust.
In what block were the first gassings held at Auschwitz? When were they held? Who were the first victims?
Block 11; in the basement; Soviet POWs
was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the General Government, and marked the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, the use of extermination camps. During the operation, as many as two million people were murdered in Bełżec, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, almost all of whom were Jews. Initiated in 1941
What camp were the Warsaw Jews deported to during the war?
As Hitler's favorite architect, Speer was in charge of building cities and structures for Hitler and designing new cities envisioned after victory in WWII.
Contractor for electrical systems that was contacted to try and get the gas chambers' ventilation system to extract Zyklon B AND fan the flames of the crematorium (because of rationing on the wires required, it wasn't able to be done)
"supervisory inmates"; inmates in charge of work details
Which crematoria were designed from inception to operate as "killing machines"?
The date Auschwitz was confirmed as a killing center...
Sept. 26, 1942
"Special Squad"; people (inmates) with good physical conditions, good food, good clothes, good sleeping quarters, better jobs- entered people to camps, lied to them, cleaned out gas chambers, deal with dead people and human remains, short life span because they saw and knew too much so they were killed
trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide infamous for its use by Nazi Germany against human beings in gas chambers of extermination camps during the Holocaust.
How many bodies count Auschwitz ovens process per day?
The "Angel of Death" of Auschwitz known for his medical experimentation, especially on twins, and his decisions as to who would die.
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
a German scientific institution established in the German Kaiserreich in 1911; it was implicated in Nazi scientific operations and after WWII ended its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society; an umbrella organization for many institutes, testing stations, and research units; scientists often work closely with companies
When did the Judeocide begin and how many were killed that year?
What were the names of the other camps, specifically death camps?
Kulmhof, Sobibor, Belzec, Treblinka
What was the last remaing Jewish community to be transported to Auschwitz? What year? When was the country occupied?
Hungarian Jews; transported in April 1944/country occupied in March 1944
Rudolf Vrba & Alfred Wetzler
March 1944, these Jewish inmates escaped from Aushwitz and created the "Auschwitz Protocols" which reported what was actually happening inside the camps. Until this point people did not understand how calculated and organized the Germans were and this led them to understand how it all happened and they could believe it more. People realized how millions could be dying.
How many Hungarian Jews were sent to Auschwitz? When?
381,661 within 2.5 months of Hungary's occupation
Synopsis of "Survival in Auschwitz"
Primo Levi was a twenty-four-year-old Italian Jew when the Fascist Militia captured him on December 13, 1943. He explains that he would later learn at Auschwitz that "a man must pursue his own ends by all possible means, while he who errs but once pays dearly." When he is captured, he tells the authorities that he is an "Italian citizen of Jewish race," thinking that confessing he was a political rebel would result in torture and death. In the preface, Levi explains that:
it was my good fortune to be deported to Auschwitz only in 1944, that is, after the German Government had decided, owing to the growing scarcity of labour, to lengthen the average lifespan of the prisoners destined for elimination; it conceded noticeable improvements in the camp routine and temporarily suspended killings at the whim of individuals.
Levi, along with the other captured Italian Jews, was sent to Auschwitz by train.
At Auschwitz, the Italian Jews feel thirst for the first time. Although there is a water faucet, a sign above it warns the prisoners, or "Häftling," against drinking it. Levi and the others soon learn that no one should drink the water to quench thirst. Instead, the prisoners rely on the water in the soup and the coffee substitute they are given. Learning these things is by no means easy. Some of the prisoners trick the newly arrived prisoners into making bad decisions, such as trading a spoon for three rations of bread. The prisoners are able to tell a lot about each other based on the numbers tattooed into their arms. A few Jews, numbers 30,000 to 80,000, were taken from the Polish ghettos and they still survive after years. They are treated with great respect. Levi's number is 174517. The prisoners have to show their number to get bread and soup.
Levi discusses how he learned to survive and how he came to realize that he was "on the bottom." The prisoners...
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