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Pharmacy Exam | Review
Terms in this set (16)
How long does it take to become a pharmacist? What is the average GPA needed for admissions at UNMC COP?
It takes 6-7 years to become a pharmacist. Average GPA of 3.5
What are the different career options/classifications within the profession of pharmacy?
-Institutional (Hospital) Pharmacy
What are some of the clinical specialties within pharmacy?
-Critical care pharmacy
What is pharmacognosy?
-scientific study of the structural, physical, chemical, and sensory characters of crude drugs of vegetable, animal, and mineral origin
The binomial system of classifying plants was developed by whom? Why is it important?
Linnaeus (Swedish biologist) developed the binomial system and it is important because it gave plants universal names so that everyone around the world would know what plant they were talking about and it was easier to learn and memorize plants. Also they were easily categorized and were grouped accordingly.
Provide at least 3 examples of plants currently used in clinical practice today. Be sure to include the name and how it interacts with the body.
1. Ginger - non drug that is used to help treat nausea, motion sickness, and inflammation
2. Taxol - natural plant remedy used for cancer chemotherapy
3. Quinine - drug that came from a South American tree "Cinchona" and an antimalarials
4. Turmeric - natural plant in powder form that helps with inflammation and prevents heart diseases
What are the 6 main reasons/principles as to why we need plants for today's pharmacology?
1. Source of drug molecules
2. Source of complex molecules that can be modified to medicinal compounds
3. Source of toxic molecules
4. Source of compounds to use as templates for designing new drugs
5. Source of novel structures
6. Source of plant drugs
What are some (at least 3) of the key US Federal Legislative acts passed in the 20th and 21st Century and what did they address?
-Food and Drug Act (1906)- prohibited unsafe drugs, proper labeling, honest and truthful about ingredients, identified standards
-Food Drug Cosmetic Act (1938)- outlawed false claims, need to have inspections, problem for herbal medicines
-Orphan Drug Act of 1983- facilitated drug development of orphan drugs, drugs for rare diseases.
-Durham-Humphrey Amendment of 1951 - had to label what kind of a prescription drug it was and physician had to prescribe it especially if it was potentially harmful
What are the 6 key elements of the Nuremburg Code?
1. Agree to be experimented on (consent)
2. Must be animal tested before human tested (prior animal work)
3. Any benefits of doing the experiment? (risks justified by benefits)
4. Only qualified scientists must conduct research
5. Physical and mental suffering must be avoided
6. Research that leads to death or suffering shouldn't be conducted
What are the 7 key components of the Drug Discovery Process? About how long does each step take? What happens within each step? How are people involved in each step?
1. Drug Discovery (2-10 years) - trying to find chemicals that work, drug hits
2. Clinical Research - in vitro and animals pre(2-4)
3. Phase 1- healthy people 1
4. Phase 2 100-500 c=actually have the disease 1
5. 1000-15000 with disease 2-4
6. NDA review applications and get approval still running tests 1-2
7. OUt in the world how is it helping do they have to make adjustments 2+
WHOLE PROCESS is 18 + years
What are the 3 key principles of the Belmont report and what do each represent?
-Principle of respect for persons - they're a person and must have informed consent
-Principle of beneficence - is it for the good?
-Principle of justice -make sure balanced as right, must distribute burdens and benefits of research
What rights do you have as a youth (under 19 years of age in Nebraska) in clinical research?
-You have the right to refuse to participate in clinical research
Informed assent- permission to happen to me depending how old you are
What happens in the body during drug overdose? What is the main body function that stops that causes death in a person?
Respiratory failure- forget to breathe, part of your brain shuts down not ALL
What were the steps involved in the sugar/pain "test"? Was the order important? Why or why not? Why was sugar used(not salt)?
-We had to measure our heart rate before and after every "test" to see how the "test" affected our body. We took our heart rate, snapped a rubber band on our wrist, measured our heart rate drank green tea, measured our heart rate, drank sugar water, measured our heart rate, snapped a rubber band again on our wrist, and finally, measured our heart rate The order was important because sugar only stays so long in your body and it works right after you consume so the results would be more factual.
Are Juul ads treated the same way as ads involving cigarettes? What changes, if any, do you think need to occur? Why or why not?
-No they are not being treated the same way like cigarette ads because you can not have cigarette ads promoting smoking. As opposed to Juul ads, there are a lot of commercials advertising them and all of the flavors. What needs to be done is Juul ads to be banned from being shown because it might influence other young people who don't know the risks. People think Juuling is better than smoking but in reality they're not and in fact probably even worse.
"What percentage of EEE cases result in death?"
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