Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary, progressive wisconsin govenor whose agenda of reforms was known as the wisconsin idea, 1855-1925. Progressive Wisconsin Senator and Governor. Staunch supporter of the Progressive movement, and vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, WWI, and League of Nations., The liberal canidate in the 1924 presidential election. His new progressive party called for government ownership of railroads, relief for farmers, reform of monopoly and anti-labor businesses and urged for an amendment that would limit the supreme courts ability to overturn congressional decisions, battling bob progressive lawyer nominated to Supreme Court by Wilson, known for his brilliance and for fighting many public causes, his work earned him the name "the people's lawyer", first Jewish Supreme Court nominee, A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling., This brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the "curse of bigness." He thought the government should help small businesses, muller v. oregon, , A prominent reformer and Attorney in "Muller vs. Oregon" (1908) that persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. Wrote book "Other People's Money and How Bankers use it" (1914) that pushed reform within the banks. Nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for Supreme Court, helped lead the American Zionist movement Group aimed at combating the influence of alcohol in families, Headed by Frances E. Willard, this organization found friends w/ Anti-Saloon League & vehemently opposed alcohol, Political power that campaigned for sobriety and decency, Supported the Anti-Saloon League, an organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it., created by Frances Willard who celebrated a female's role in society and politics, expanded on other issues like welfare and public health reform, trained women as lobbyists and organizers - increased confidence in politics 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War, Leader of Rough Riders, Vice President and very famous President, big stick policy, president from 1901-1909 • Trust-busting: shut down 44 monopolies • Environmental conservation—established many national parks • Square deal: balancing interests of consumer, business and laborer, wanted to run for 3rd term, pro-war, demeaned wilson and taft for not taking action, , President from 1901-1909; Big Stick diplomacy (military force); Roosevelt Corollary; Nobel Prize for Russo-Japan war; Bull Moose party-New Nationalism; fought trusts, aided Progressive reforms, built Panama Canal; increased US influence overseas Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers, Theodore Roosevelt's promise of fair and equal treatment for all, President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed, Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation, Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 presidential campaign slogan pledging to balance the interests of business, consumers, and labor., Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good. 27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term., Successor of Roosevelt; Different views than Teddy; part of political corruption; Passed Sixteenth Amendment, (1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson, promoted "dollar diplomacy" to expand foreign investments, 27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him. Brief but sharp economic downturn of 1907, blamed by conservatives on the supposedly dangerous president., a short but punishing panic descended on Wall Street. the blame was quickly placed on Roosevelt. fortunately, this panic paved the way for long-overdue fiscal reforms. Congress in 1908 responded with the Aldrich-Vreeland Act, which authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral., a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts., A short depression known as the Richman's Panic (Banker's panic) because the rich overspeculated. It called attention to inelasticity of the currency and the great control private banks had over the money supply., led to creation of Federal Reserve System 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize, After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations., President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations. (p. 762) Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters., Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one., Wilson's belief that that the federal government should restore competition rather than regulate monopolies; this required eliminating all trusts, lowering tariffs, and breaking up the concentration of financial power on Wall Street; dreaming of turning over most social programs to the states and the cities; saw the vigorous expansion of federal power as a temporary necessity, not a permanent conditions; having restored competition and the diffusion of power and programs, the national government would revent to its aloof heritage Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them, Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor., when Roosevelt lost to Taft in the primaries, he joined the Progressive Party and was nominated and campaigned for this which presented a vision of strong federal government, regulating and protecting the interests of American society - platform called for women's suffrage, 8-hour work day, prohibition of child labor, and stricter regulation of large corporations - contrasted Wilson's "New Freedom" Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win, When the Republican's votes were split between Taft and Roosevelt, the Democrats stayed together and elected Wilson as President. The Republicans had no chance because they had two candidates running., William Howard Taft/republican vs. Teddy Roosevelt/progressive ("Bull Moose" Campaign) vs. Woodrow Wilson/democrat vs. Eugene V. Debs/socialist= Wilson (first democratic winner since Cleveland), offered voters severl choices: Wilson's New Freedom, Taft's conservation, Roosevelt's progressivism, or the Socialist Party policies of Eugene V. Debs. A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling., an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. In addition, he helped lead the American Zionist, progressive lawyer nominated to Supreme Court by Wilson, known for his brilliance and for fighting many public causes, his work earned him the name "the people's lawyer", first Jewish Supreme Court nominee. Brandeis Breif, This brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the "curse of bigness." He thought the government should help small businesses. foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace, Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy., Wilson's plan for imperialism that was based upon democratic ideals (aid liberty across the world) and discouraged economic advancement or the use of force., U.S. has a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American gov't it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests. The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914., Argentina, Brazil and Chile, the three south american powers who rescued Wilson from full-blown conflict with Mexico by offering mediation., Argentina, Brazil, Chile; Organized a conference to resolve the crisis; In June it called for Huerta's resignation and for the creation of a provisional gov't; Huerta refused, but his enemies were closing in; That July Huerta resigned and fled to Spain veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917, veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917, led the American Expeditionary Force; urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command; was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer, broke up "Pancho" Villa's gang but missed Villa himself, The leading general for the Allies, head of american forces in WW1 a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918, also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen., assassination of archduke f. ferdinand was the trigger of the war. many other countries joined. ( the Great War ), interupted suffrage, women got respect from WILSON . Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, and Italy alliance in WWI, The Allied power is the name given to the alliance of countries in opposition to the Axis power in WWII. The U.S., Britain,France,Australia, New Zealand,India, The Soviet Union,Canada, and Greece are some countries that were apart of the allied powers., United Kingdom, France, Soviet Union, United States, China the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations, It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose., Wilson's peace plan: (1) open peace covenants (2) free navigation of seas (besides territorial waters) (3) equality of trade conditions between nations (4) national armaments will be reduced as low as possible (5) impartial adjustment of colonial claims (6) leave Russia alone, let it form its own new gov't (7) evacuate and restore Belgium (8) free French territory, fix Alsace-Lorraine (9) form Italian borders along nationality lines (10) Peoples of Austria-Hungary are free to form their own nations (11) get out of Romania, Serbia, & Montenegro, let them be autonomous (12) free non-Turk Ottoman territories (13) construct a Polish state of indisputably Polish peoples (14) League of Nations George Creel's committee to encourage the war effort through the use of movies, songs, and speeches. Through his efforts, you can see that George Creel and this committee were "For the War", headed by george creel, in charge of propaganda in WWI, depicted US as champion of justice and liberty, used advertising tactics to help sway public opinion in favor of the war, headed by george creel, in charge of propaganda in WWI, depicted US as champion of justice and liberty; 4 min. men gave 4 min speeches This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection., 1917, outlawed treason (opposing draft, criticizing government, flag, or military), enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats. Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity., Union of radicals and socialists nicknamed the Wobblies, supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause, IWW; a group of radical unionists and socialists who formed in 1905. Known as the Wobblies. Wobblies included miners, lumbers, and dock workers. Unlike the ARU the IWW welcomed African Americans. Gave sense of solidarity to unskilled workers. Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI., type of fighting in which both sides dig trenches and attempt to overrun the enemy's trenches, war from inside trenches enemies would try killing each other with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas, a bloody form of war that consisted of two opposing forces digging holes in the ground or "trenches" to provide shelter from enemy gunfire. Heavy Artillery would be able to shoot through trenches and infantry would race across "no man's land" or the land between the two frontal trenches. Gas was also used to fill the trenches and kill all within them. led the American Expeditionary Force; urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command; was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer, Insisted that U.S. troops serve as a "distinct and seperate component" of the combined allied forces in Europe., US general who unsuccessfully pursues Villa in Mexico, veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917, commander of the American Expeditionary Force, found that the Allies intended to use American troops simply as reinforcements, and believed in aggressive combat and felt three ears of trench warfare and had made the Allies too defensive The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy., a group of four men who decided key issues for a peace treaty (Treaty of Versailles: Clemenceau, Orlando, George, Wilson), the US, Great Britain, Italy, and France were four victorious nations who decided the terms for peace at the conclusion of WWI. Woodrow Wilson proposed the 14 point plan but was unable to convince his own Congress to allow the US to join the League of Nations. The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful., the event at which the Allies met to discuss the fate of Europe, the former Ottoman Empire, and various colonies around the world after the end of WWI (the Central Powers were not allowed to participate in negotiations), a conference between the US, France, and Britain; Germany wasn't invited; France wanted huge reparations, land, and to disband the German army; US wanted a league of nations; Great Britain wanted land and reparations from Germany but not as much as france the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans, Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons., The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans. (p. 763), The Treaty of Versailles was the product of the Paris Peace Conference, although none of the Allies was happy with it. Germany was forced to sign the treaty, which was very harsh. Germany had to accept all responsibility for the war, pay the Allies huge reparations; including pensions, severely weaken the size of her army, return Alsace-Lorraine to France, and give up overseas colonies.