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164 terms

MEDEX - Pharmaco-

MEDEX - Pharmaco-
STUDY
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cimetidine
Histamine H2 receptor antagonists (3)
famotidine
Histamine H2 receptor antagonists (3)
ranitidine
Histamine H2 receptor antagonists (3)
HCl (reduces heartburn)
Cimetidine, Famotidine, Ranitidine reduce the amount of ______ secretion
Gastrin
3 pathways that stimulate gastric acid secretion at parietal cell = ___.
ACH
3 pathways that stimulate gastric acid secretion at parietal cell = ___.
histamine
3 pathways that stimulate gastric acid secretion at parietal cell = ___.
Gynecomastia (man-rack)
Cimetidine = this negative side effect in men ______.
Cimetidine
Cytochrome P450 does not interact well with ___ Rx.
PPI's (Omeprazole)
Gastric Acid secretion is prevented by taking ___.
PPI's, Omeprazole
______ are more effective than H2 blockers. i.e. _____.
Zollinger-Ellison
PPI's (Omeprazole)are indicated in people with ___ syndrome.
Peptic ulcer
PPI's (Omeprazole)are indicated in people with GERD or ___ ___ disease.
dyspepsia
PPI's (Omeprazole)are indicated in people with ___ Sx's.
No, well tolerated
Are there many adverse effects with PPI's?
Stomach Acid; Pain or dyspepsia
Gastric Antacids (Calcium Carbonate) neutralizes_______ and relieves _______
Calcium Carbonate (Gastric Antacids)
Acid Indigestion and moderate dyspepsia are best relieved with ____.
Antacids ie. Calcium Carbonate
Constipation, diarrhea, & rebound acid = adverse effects of ___ class GI drugs.
Sucralfate
Muco-protective drug that adheres to ulcer craters = ___.
Sucralfate
_______ Rx's form a protective barrier to acid and pepsin for healing.
Ulcers
Sucralfate can treat and prevent active ________
Sucralfate
People who cannot tolerate PPI's or H2 blockers can take
impairs
Sucralfate ________ absorption of some drugs (flouro's, digoxin, ketoconazole)
Misoprostol
Muco-protective drug that promotes secretion of mucous and bicarb = ___.
Gastric , Duodenal
Long term NSAID patient takes Misoprostol to prevent _____ and ______ ulcers
kinetic
Metoclopramide is a pro_______ drug
Metoclopramide
Propulsivity of the GI tract is enhanced with ___________, a prokinetic drug.
CNS
Metoclopramide negative side effects include ___ involvement & pseudoparkinsonism
Psyllium (Metamucil)
Chronic constipation is relieved by________, a bulk-forming laxative
water
Psyllium retains _______ , which increases distention of intestinal wall
Peristalsis
Mechanical distention of intestinal wall from Psyllium promotes________.
Psyllium (Metamucil)
Safest and most physiologic type of laxative = ___.
Docusate Sodium
A hard and dry stool is softened by using ____ Rx.
Stool Softener
Docusate Sodium is considered a ___ ____, which is used for constipation.
osmotic
Milk of magnesia (MOM) is an ___ laxative.
poisoned, OD
Milk of magnesia is used in patients who are ______ or ___ on drugs before surgery
Renal
Milk of magnesia is contraincated in ___ patients.
dehydration
Concern for prolonged milk of magnesia use = ___ and electrolyte imbalance.
Stimulant
Senna is a natural ________ laxative
Senna
___ is anatural substance stimulates parastolysis.
Senna
Surgery or exam of the bowels can be done after the patient takes...
abdominal, depletion
Senna can cause _______ cramping and fluid ________
Shart
Diarrhea combined with a fart is called ___.
Diarrhea
Diphenoxylate and Loperamide treat ___.
Diphenoxylate
To prevent peristalsis thus controlling diarrhea you would take (2) ___.
Loperamide
To prevent peristalsis thus controlling diarrhea you would take (2) ___.
Opioids
Diphenoxylate and Loperamide are __ class Rx's.
traveler's (infectious)
Bismuth Subsalicylate treats ________ diarrhea
Taco (it's toxic in large amounts)
An antisecretory agent like bismuth subsalicylate is "____"genic :)
Pepto Bismol
Bismuth Subsalicylate is also called ___.
Constipation
Excessive use of Diphenoxylate or Loperamide would cause ___.
Ondansetron "On Dance A Tron"
At the Serotonin 5-HT3 "dance club" you can control your chemo N&V with
Nausea, vomiting
Prochlorperazine relieves severe______ and ____ Sx's.
Post-op
Metoclopramide is indicated in patients with____ N&V or chemo.
Dronabinol
If no other N&V medication is working, try using a marijuana derivative called...
Appetite
Dronabinol prevents N&V in chemo and HIV pts and also stimulates your ________.
Vertigo or motion sickness
Promethazine is a antihistamine that prevents N&V in those dizzy patients with ___.
Motion
Scopolamine is a prophylaxis for _____ sickness.
Pharmacokenetics
___is concerned with the metabolism & concentration of a drug.
Pharmacodynamics
___ is the effect of a drug on the body
Slow
Tablets are ___ in availability compared to IV Rx's.
Varies
Gastric emptying ___ from person to person.
Measuring
Disadvantages of liquid meds is the need for a ___ device.
Less
Liqiuds are ___ stable than pills.
Exact
Liquids can be made to the ___ concentration needed
Slow
Skin patches = ___ medication release
Steady
May not be a ___ dose of meds over life-span of patch
Absorbed
Patch medication penitrates the skin & is ___ into the blood
Oral/nasal
Aresol = __ route of administration (2)
Quickly
Aresol medication is ___ absorbed.
Dose
Actual ___ can vary w/ areosol Rx's.
Topical
Base dissolves as medication is absorbed in ___ route Rx's.
Penitrate
Water soluble topicals do not ___ the skin well
Suppositories
___ are a good route for vomiting patients
GI
Entrel adminstration of a drug = ___ absorption
Needle
Parental Rx adminstration requires a ___ .
PO
Three enteral routes include (3) ___.
Sublingual
Three enteral routes include (3) ___,
Rectal
Three enteral routes include (3) ___,
Buccal
Similar to sublingual, ___ administration is also in the mouth.
Nitroglycerin
Example of sublingual medication =___.
Small
Sublingual doses have to be ___ compared to PO doses
Inactivate
Gastric acid can ___ some oral meds = disadvantages
Portal
Rectal absorption by passes hepatic __- system.
Immediately
IV drug effects are available ___.
Delayed
Effects of PO drugs are ___.
Controlled
IV doses can be precisely ___.
Quickly
Water based IM injections are absorbed ___ compared to hydrophobic Rx's.
Slower
Lipid based IM injection are absorbed ___ than water-based.
Slower/Later
IM meds are available ___ than IV meds.
Painful
IM injection sites can be ___ for days.
Slower
Sub-Q inj are absorbed ___ than IM
Small
Sub-Q inj can only be in ___ volumes
IV
___ route has 100% bioavailability.
Subarachnoid
Iintrathecal route is directly in the ___ space.
Intrathecal
When med cannot penetrate BBB in menigitis, use ___ route.
Nose
An insufflational med is used in the ___.
Allergy
Intradermal route is used in ___ testing.
Arthritic
Intrarticular drugs are used for ___ conditions.
Days
Advantages of fentanyl transdermal is it releases medication over ___.
Fast
Effects of inhaled meds are ___ to hit the body.
Local/confirmed
Effects of topical meds are usually ___ to that region.
Mucus
Topicals can be used on both skin & ___ membranes
Chemical
Generic names of meds are often the ___ name.
Absorption
Rate of ___ effects how fast a medication is available.
Distributed
How a drug is ___ throughout the body determines availability.
Water
___ soluble meds are distributed faster than lipid soluable meds.
Quickly/long
How ___ a medication is metabolized dermines how long its available
Longer
Meds that are excreted slowly are available ___ then fast ones.
Slower
Large molecules are distributed in body ___ than small ones.
Longer
Lipid soluable drugs are available for distribution ___ than H20 Soluable ones.
Distribution
Protein binding & unbinding effects the ___ of a medication.
Blood
Some organs have more ___ flow than others.
First Pass
GI drugs most ___ ___ the gut & liver before becoming systemic.
Lower
First pass can ___ bioavailability of med.
Metabolized
Many drugs are ___ by liver.
Metabolized
Digestive process can ___ medications making less bioavailability.
P450
The ___ enzyme system metabilized many meds. (biotransfrom)
Urine
Major route of med excretion = ___.
Bile
Meds are excreted via ___ & then via defication baby
Excretion
Breast milk, saliva, & sweat are also vehicles for ___.
Bioavailability
Term for amt. of med that reaches blood.
Decreased
Food & stomach acid can ___ bioavailability
Decreased
First-pass biotransformation ___ bioavailability
Disintegration
Tablet ___ time can affect bioavailability
Pharmacutical
This is called a ___ effect on bioavailability
Biological
Food , enzymes, & stomach acid are ___ effects on Bioavailility
1/2 Life
Amount of time drug concentration is cut in half is called ___.
Steady-state
Drug intake = drug excretion is called ___.
Loading-Dose
Large intial dose followed by smaller ones= ___.
Maintanance
Dose given to induce steady -state is called ___ dose
Receptor
Place where med binds to cell is called ___.
Effect
Activity or efficacy reffers to drugs cellular ___.
Agonist
Drugs w/o receptor & receptor-mediated effect on cells are called ___.
Antagonist
Drugs binds to receptor w/ no effect = ___.
Complete
Antagonist ___ for receptors.
Efficacy
Drugs that have no cellular effect lack ___.
Tachyphylaxis
Short-term agonist effect that weakens = ___.
Desensitization
Other term for tachphylaxis =___.
Outside
Dose -response relationship referrs to amt of drug ___ cells
Cariomyopathy
Cadiotoxcitiy (med-related) can lead to ___.
Blood
Hematoppoietic toxicity leads to low ___ cell production.
PLTS
Blood cells effected by = RBC's/WBC, & ___.
Necrosis
Nephritis & tubular __- are seen in nephrotoxicity.
OTO
Ear & Ballancing disorders are seen in ___ toxicity.
Pulmonary
Lung fibrosis is seen in __ toxicity
Skin
Rashes are examples of med- induced ___ toxicity
Interaction
When the effect of a drug is changed by another drug, its an drug ___.
Interactions
Drug ___ change pharmcodynamics, Pharmacuetical or pharmcokinetic properties
Absorption
Food can alter a medications ___.
Interact
many drugs ___ with each other in stomach & intestine.
Inhibiting
Interaction can be additive, multiplicative, & ___.
Synergistic
Term for drugs having multiple effect on body
Dynamic
Additive or synergistic effects are pharmaco ____ interactions
Kinetic
Effects of multiple meds on absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion are pharmco ___ interactions.
Motility
Absorption-related drug interactions included alter gut ___.
Receptors
Distribution-related drug interaction takes place on cell ___.
Distribution
A meds ___ is affected by extracelluar concentration & number of receptors.
Biotransformation
Alter hepatic blood flow, increase or decrease the enzymes action impacts a drugs metabolism ___.
Excretion
___ of drugs is decreased in neonates
Elderly
___ pts have reduced drug metabolism
Excretion
Elderly have slower ___ of drugs
Kidny/Liver
Decreased ___ & ___ function lower metabolism & excretion of drugs in elderly
Kidney/Liver
___ & ___ disease negatively impacts drug metabolism & excretion.