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Boards Mnemonics and Gems
Terms in this set (90)
Guinness, Corona, and PBRS induce Chronic alcoholism:
Griseofulvin, Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Barbiturates, Rifampin, St John's Wort, and Chronic alcoholism
Tamiflu-neuraminidase inhibitor for influenza A and B
Fragmenting of DNA into stretches of 180 base pairs, which is indicative of apoptosis as it is the linker between nucleosomes which is at this 180 bp mark and happens in karryorhexis
Lymphocyte produced cytokine that promotes B and T cell differentiation, NK activation, and is secreted by T's that have seen ag
IL-2 (T for 2 and 2 for T)
False positive rate
Risk in exposed patients/risk in unexposed patients
Number needed to treat
Inverse of the absolute risk reduction; ARR is the mortality of one group minus mortality of second group. then 1 over the ARR (difference) is the number needed to treat.
Myasthenia gravis has what associated organ problem
Thymoma or hyperplastic thymic tissue. If easily fatigued with chewing think MG then think thymus problem
what is insulins effect on K?
It drives K into cells...so when no insulin is around, get hyperkalemia
Tx for pheochromocytoma
Phenoxybenzamine; only long acting alpha 1 blocker (prazosin, etc only have effects for about 1 day)
Lucid interval after brain injury
epidermal hematoma (middle meningeal a.)
Worst headache of my life
subarachnoid (bridging veins)
Neonate with large intraventricular (brain) clot; cause?
Germinal matrix bleed
What process anchors fatty acids to basement membranes in cells?
venodilator so drops preload and thus decreases end diastolic ventricular volume and to compensate for low volume/preload, HR increases
Qc's HAV 1 M&M
Gq receptors (involving phosphlipase Ca and protein kinase C from DAG or Ca increase from IP3) are H1, a1, V1, M1 and M3
Gi is the MAD 2's
Gi receptors (which inhibit the adenylyl cyclase that would activate cAMP from ATP conversion and lead to PKA increase if Gs driven) is the M2, a2, and D2 receptors
Most common area of involvement in Crohn's
How does Papovavirus replicate in the host?
Using host machinery/enzymes
MEN 1: Parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary
MEN 2A: medullary carcinoma of thyroid, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid tumor
MEN 2B: medullary carcinoma of thyroid, pheochromocytoma, and mucosal neuromas
related b/c all are neural crest derivatives!
Gram + rods with tumbling motility at room temperature collected from CSF of immunocompromised pt
Whats the mechanism of thalidomide
TNF alpha inhibitor
mnemonic for CYP450 inhibitors
Cimetidine, Ritonavir (protease inhibitors), Amiodarone, Ciprofloxacin, Ketoconazole, Acute alcohol use, Macrolides, Isoniazid, Grapefruit juice, Omeprazole, Sulfonamides
Drugs causing gynecomastia
Spironolactone, THC (maryjane), Alcohol, Cimetidine, Ketoconazole, Estrogen, Digoxin
what are the obligate aerobic bacteria?
Nagging Pests Must Breathe:
Nocardia, Pseudomonas, M. tuberculosis, Bacillus
Parietal cells secrete:
Gastrin and Intrinsic Factor
Hyperpigmentation of lips, hands, and mucosae with GI tract hamartomas
GnRH agonist that will reduce levels of LH and FSH and thus reduce circulating testosterone with constant administration to help treat prostate ca
AA's with 3 titratable protons
Histidine, cysteine, lysine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid.
What do you think of with bilateral Belle's palsy
Guillan Barre syndrome or Lyme disease
What are the encapsulated bacteria?
Even Some Pretty Nasty Killers Have Shiny Bodies:
E.coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, Klebsiella, H. flu, Strep pneumoniae, group B strep.
Mechanism behind Reye syndrome
Aspirin metabolites given in children after viral disease irreversibly inhibit mitochondrial enzymes that then result in lack of Beta oxidation in the liver
Treatment for pt with Kaiser-Fleischer rings
Has wilson's disease, which is copper overload-->Tx with penicillamine (Copper Pennies)
Treatment for Hep B and C
What can interferon beta be used to Tx?
Honeycomb lung on xray
interstitial lung fibrosis
Hypertensive agents used in pregnancy
Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine
Hydralazine, Methyldopa, Labetalol, Nifedipine
Drug Induced lupus drugs
Sulfonamides, Hydralazine, Isoniazid, Phenytoin, Procainamide
Post MI pericarditis that occurs about 2-6 weeks after an MI. Sx: chest pain, pericardial friction rub, and persistent fever
Kartageners syndrome triad
Carcinoid Syndrome sx
Bronchospasm and wheezing
Right sided heart lesions (valvular, murmurs)
Bacterial endocarditis mnemonic
Fever, Roth spots, Oslers nodes, Murmur
Janeway lesions (painless), Anemia, Nailbed hemorrhages, Emboli
Granulomatous lesions in the heart
Aschoff bodies-Rheumatic fever
Friction rub with sharp pain, sitting back helps
Acute pericarditis (lupus can induce constrictive)
decreased systolic BP when inhale b/c LV has less capacity-->cardiac tamponade
Kussmaul's sign (heart)
Increase in JVD when inhale rather than decreased JVD from reduced capacity of RV-->restrictive pericarditis
Rash that occurs in rheumatic fever
erythema marginatum-->serpentine rash that spreads over body
Charcot's triad of cholangitis
RUQ pain, fever, jaundice
Reynolds pentad of cholangitis
RUQ pain, fever, jaundice, altered mental status and hypotension
Primary biliary cirrhosis
autoimmune dx in middle aged females with +ANA and usually other autoimmune diseases present
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
males over 40 with + pANCA, UC association and increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma. Beads on a string morphology on ERCP
Don't CRASH a Kawasaki:
Conjunctivitis, Rash, Adenopathy, Strawberry tongue, Hand and foot desquamation/erythema
Weak pulses in upper extremeties
necrotizing granulomas of lung and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Necrotizing immune complex inflammation of visceral/renal vessels (no lung)
PAN (spares lung and NO ANCA positivity)
young male smoker
young asian women
infants/young children with coronary arteritis
palpable purpura on lower legs after URI
Most common vasculitis
Hepatitis B associated vasculitis
unilateral headache, jaw claudication, vision loss
perforation of nasal septum due to vasculitis
What drug class decreases mortality and progression of CHF?
Beta blocker that decreases mortality and decrease progression of CHF
non-dihydropyradine calcium channel blocker: slows conduction through the AV node but can increase chances for AV cndxn blocks or bradycardia.
B1 selective blocker that also reduces the secretion of renin
What do aminopenicillins Tx
(ampicillin and amoxicillin)
HEELPSS: H. influenza, Enterococcus, E. coli, Listeria, Proteus, Salmonella and Shigella
They can treat URIs with Gram + coverage, UTIs with gram negative, and neonatal infections with Listeria and H.flu coverage. Often give with B-lactamase b/c lactamase sensitive. THESE HAVE RASH ASSOCIATED THAT IS NOT HYPERSENSITIVITY
what are the antipseudomonals?
anTiPseudomonals: Ticarcillin and Piperacillin which protect against gram-negative rods and Pseudomonas a.
Cephalosporin coverage of 1st gen
Cefazolin, cephalexin; PEcK Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella
2nd gen cephalosporin and coverage
cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime
HENS PEcK: h.flu, Enterobacter, neisseria, serratia, proteus, E.coli, Klebsiella
3rd gen cephalosporin and coverage
deftriaxone, cefotaxamine, cefetazidime, cefidine
serious Gram NEGATIVES (better with gonorrhea and meningitis) Ceftazidime has psudomonas coverage
4th gen cephalosporin and coverage
Pseudomonas and gram positives
what bugs do cephalosporins NOT cover
Listeria, Atypicals (mycoplasma, chlamydia, MRSA, Enterococci)
primary biliary cirrhosis
What congenital heart defect is associated with Turner's syndrome?
Most commonly bicuspid aortic valve is seen giving AS. Coarctation of aorta: weakened leg pulses, increased brachial pulses and enlarged intercostal arteries.
What CHD is associated with Downs syndrome
endocardial cushion defects, ostium primum ASD and regurgitant AV valves
What CHD is associated with DiGeorge
Tetralogy of Fallot and atretic aorta (severe form of coarctation of aorta where its totally atretic)
what heart anomaly is associated with tuberous sclerosis
valvular obstructions due to rhabdomyomas
what heart anomaly is associated with Friedrich's ataxia
what heart anomaly is associated with Marfan's?
cystic medial necrosis of aorta
which medications have negative inotropic effects?
beta blockers, amiodarone and sotalol, non-dihyrdopyridine CCBs, cholinergic agonists(pilocarpine and rivastigmin) and cardiac glycosides (ie digoxin)
if Non-dihydropyramidine CCBs and B blockers are used together they can be additive and cause severe hypotension and reduced chronotropy
amphotericin B has what toxic effects
renal tubular dysfunction that results in hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia from destruction of tubular cells which increases membrane permeability
Nafcillin is used empirically when?
When staph aureus is probably the cause, often in skin and soft tissue infections where staph is likely the cause (like a hair follicle abcess)
what process does genetic hemochromatosis affect?
GI uptake of iron. Mutation is related to absorption of iron; mutation is located on short arm of chromosome 6
In a family with young onset colon cancer and other primary cancers, what process is likely mutated?
because its familial, its likely HNPCC or lynch syndrome that is giving young onset colon cancers and other primary cancers. HNPCC has a mutation in mismatch repair, so DNA proofreading does NOT occur. Two types of lynch, type 1 is increased risk of colon cancer but type 2 has that AND increased risk of extracolonic cancers like endometrial, ovarian, gastric
what is thought to be the reason for beta cell destruction in DMtype2
amylin deposition; amyloid is released with secretion of insulin and is thought to deposit in pancreatic beta cells and cause destruction
frontal balding, gonadal atrophy, cataracts, and pt finding it hard to release grip of door handle or handshake and a muscle biopsy showing atrophy of mostly type 1 fibers implies what disease?
myotonic muscular dystrophy (second most common after duchenne). atrophy of type 1 muscle fibers are common but the fatty infiltrate seen in duchenne is NOT seen in myotonic muscular dystrophy. age of onset varies and the altered hair and gonads are common presentation
how do ion channel myopathies present
myotonia and episodic hypotonic paralysis that is often associated with exercise; no muscle atrophy will be seen on biopsy
puffy face, red urine in 7 year old boy with proteinuria and mostly albumin and low IgG as protein lost is...
minimal change disease. the effacement of the podocytes allows albumin loss but prevents bulkier components like IgG to be lost in the nephrotic syndrome
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