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Psyo 270- Chapter 1
Terms in this set (22)
An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
Describe the 3 fundamentals features of science
Explain why psychology is a science
it takes this same general approach to understanding one aspect of the natural world: human behaviour
Define pseudoscience and give some examples
beliefs and activities that are claimed to be scientific but lack one or more of the three features of science.
Learning based observations by planning, making, recording, and analyzing observations
a question that can be answered by making objective observations
Detailed descriptions of research that are available to other researchers and the general public, usually through publication in a professional journal.
What is falsifiability?
Scientific theories must be stated in a way that predictions derived from them can be potentially shown to be false
Describe a general model of scientific research in psychology and give specific examples that fit the model.
Research in psychology can be described by a simple cyclical model. A research question based on the research literature leads to an empirical study, the results of which are published and become part of the research literature
Explain who conducts scientific research in psychology and why they do it
PhD in Psychology or related fields
They do so for professional and for personal reasons, as well as to contribute to scientific knowledge about human behaviour.
What is basic research?
primarily for the sake of achieving a more detailed and accurate understanding of human behaviour
basic research on sex differences in talkativeness could eventually have an effect on how marriage therapy is practiced
What is applied research?
conducted primarily to address some practical problem
applied research on the effect of cell phone use on driving could produce new insights into basic processes of perception, attention, and action.
Explain the limitations of common sense when it comes to achieving a detailed and accurate understanding of human behaviour.
People's intuitions about human behaviour, also known as folk psychology, often turn out to be wrong.
Give several examples of common sense or folk psychology that are incorrect.
"People use only 10% of their brain power."
"Most people experience a midlife crisis in their 40's or 50's."
"Students learn best when teaching styles are matched to their learning styles."
"Low self-esteem is a major cause of psychological problems." "Psychiatric admissions and crimes increase during full moons."
Define skepticism and its role in scientific psychology
Researchers in psychology cultivate certain critical-thinking attitudes. One is skepticism. They search for evidence and consider alternatives before accepting a claim about human behaviour as true.
What are hueristic?
Mental shortcuts in forming and maintaining our beliefs
What is confirmation bias?
the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories.
once we begin to believe that women are more talkative than men, we tend to notice and remember talkative women and silent men but ignore or forget silent women and talkative men
What is skepticism?
An attitude in which one considers alternatives and searches for evidence
giving children a weekly allowance is a good way to help them develop financial responsibility. ask whether it might be instead that receiving an allowance merely teaches children to spend money
What is tolerance for uncertainty?
The acceptance of the unknown.
Define the clinical practice of psychology and distinguish it from the science of psychology
The clinical practice of psychology—the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems—is one important application of the scientific discipline of psychology
Explain how science is relevant to clinical practice
Scientific research is relevant to clinical practice because it provides detailed and accurate knowledge about psychological problems and establishes whether treatments are effective.
Define the concept of an empirically supported treatment and give some examples.
An empirically supported treatment is one that has been studied scientifically and shown to result in greater improvement than no treatment, a placebo, or some alternative treatment
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Psyo 270- Chapter 2
Psyo 270- Replication
PSYO 270 - GETTING INSPIRED BY RESEARCH
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