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Terms in this set (159)
Convergent validity
The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores in the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same construct
Content validity
An indicator of construct validity of a measure in which the content of the measure is compare to the universe of content that defines the construct.
Construct validity
The degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure
Purpose of control group
Isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Disadvantages of experimental method
The artifical contrived situation in which experiments are often conducted
The main advantage associated with experimental method
its precise control
Suppose a researcher discovered a +.87 correlation between the length of a persons toes and the number of shoes the person owns, In general people who own the fewest number of shoes would have
a. small toes
b. large toes
c. medium
a. small
Samantha took part in an experiment where she was told they were going to look at her future goals and school grades. Instead he sat in a room alone with a cookie, the researchers were trying to see how many she would eat in her 30 min in there. The researchers who used this experiment used...
a. double blind
b. deception
b. deception
When variability in a data set is large, the SD will be ____; when the variability is small, the SD will be ____?
a. large, small
b. small, large
c. small, small
A. large, small
The subjects who participate in an experiment should...
a. all be chosen from the same geographical area
b. come from wide range of age groups
c. be carefully chosen so they are a representative sample of the population.
c. be carefully chosen so they are a representative sample of the population.
The fact that many times researchers unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of....
a. experimenter bias
b. sampling bias
d. social desirability
a. experimenter bias
When two variables are linked and their individual effects cannot be separated out, we speak of the variables as being
a. dependent
b. codependent
c. confounded
c. confounded
The Standard Deviation is a measure of
a. central tendency
b. degree of relationship between two variables
c.amount of variability in the data set.
c.amount of variability in the data set.
Derrick designed an experiment in which participants listened to persuasive speech delivered either by person who was tall or just average. In addition, the speeches were delivered by people in business clothes or people in causal clothes. In this example derrick....
a. does not have a control group, which should reduce the impact of self-reporting bias in his study.
b. has 2 IV, and will be able to determine if height and style of clothing interact
b. has 2 IV, and will be able to determine if height and style of clothing interact
Which of the following is NOT one of the arguments that critics have used to argue against the use of deception in psychological research?
a. Lying is inherently immoral
b. subjects' ability to trust others may be undermined.
c. subjects are likely to experience severe physical or psychological harm in this type of research
c. subjects are likely to experience severe physical or psychological harm in this type of research
The correlation coefficient is a measure of
a. central tendency
b. the amount of variability in a data set.
c. degree of relationship between two variables
c. degree of relationship between two variables
Which of the following is NOT a reason psychologist use animals in research?
a. the simply want to know more about the behavior of the animal.
b. they can expose them to treatments that are unacceptable with human subjects.
c. Animals are entitled to the same rights as human subjects.
c. Animals are entitled to the same rights as human subjects.
Darla has sent out a survey in which she is asking people to provide informations about their attitudes on a number of sensitive subjects. When the surveys are resented darla needs to be aware that the responses may be distorted due to.....
a. self-report bias
b. meta-analytic controls
c. statistical artifacts
a. self-report bias
Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called...
a. numerical stats
b. descriptive stats
c. inferential stats
b. descriptive stats
One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
a. reverse control groups
b. double blind procedure
c. non-representative sample
B. Double blind procedure
Dr. Kramer found that the average number of miles driven decreases as the price of gasoline increases. This relationship can best be described as a _____________ relationship.
A. zero
B. positive linear
C. curvilinear
D. negative linear
D. negative linear
In a research experiment, _____________ protects information that is revealed by the participants.
A. confidentiality
B. informed consent
C. anonymity
D. debriefing
A. confidentiality
informed consent of participants is often a problem for researchers because
A. All of these
B. informed consent takes up valuable time.
C. participants are rarely interested.
D. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias the participants' behavior.
D. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias the participants' behavior.
Kyle, a sophomore in high school, and his parents have signed written agreements allowing him to participate in a research study examining attitudes toward alcohol use by high school students. Kyle's agreement to participate is known as
A. deception.
B. coercion.
C. assent.
D. disclosure.
C. assent.
If a participant has been deceived, ethical considerations require that a researcher conduct a
A. validity check.
B. manipulation check.
C. postmortem.
D. debriefing.
D. debriefing.
A measure has construct validity if it
A. All of these
B. measures what it is intended to measure.
C. contains a large amount of true score.
D. is given to participants in a laboratory setting.
B. measures what it is intended to measure.
Ethical concerns are especially important with special populations of participants such as ____________ because ____________.
A. None of these--special populations are not considered differently because that would be discrimination
B. college students; they often have to participate as part of a course requirement
C. prisoners; they have given up their rights when they committed a crime
D. mental patients; they are not as capable of refusing to participate if they don't want to
D. mental patients; they are not as capable of refusing to participate if they don't want to
Participants read an account of a crime in which the perpetrator was described as an attractive or unattractive woman. They then assigned the length of prison sentence they felt the woman deserved. The _____________ would be a _____________ variable.
A. account of the crime; response
B. woman's attractiveness; response
C. woman's attractiveness; situational
D. account of the crime; situational
C. woman's attractiveness; situational
What is an Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
A. A group of scientists and nonscientists, members of the community, and legal specialists who review proposed research for meaningfulness and value to society.
B. A group of psychologists from the same department in a single institution who gives approval for psychology studies.
C. A group of scientists and nonscientists, members of the community, and legal specialists who review proposed research for ethical concerns.
D. A group of psychologists from psychology departments at different institutions who review proposed research for ethical concerns from all the universities and colleges in a given geographical area.
B. A group of psychologists from the same department in a single institution who gives approval for psychology studies.
What precautions can a scientist take to be protected against charges of fraud?
A. All of these
B. Only publish results that are significant at the .001 level of significance.
C. Keep careful, documented records of the research.
D. Never work alone.
C. Keep careful, documented records of the research.
A disadvantage of role-playing is that
A. participants may unknowingly give inaccurate predictions.
B. reading a description of some situation may dangerously immerse the participant in the role.
C. participants are unable to respond to the demand characteristics.
D. it is very difficult to figure out the hypothesis from a written description.
A. participants may unknowingly give inaccurate predictions.
A researcher finds that the more a song is played on the radio, the greater the liking for the song. However, she also finds that if the song is played too much, people start to dislike the song. What type of relationship does this represent?
A. No relationship
B. Positive linear
C. Curvilinear
D. Negative linear
C. Curvilinear
With three independent variables and a single dependent variable, the most appropriate statistical test to analyze the data would be a(n)
A. Pearson correlation.
B. Chi-square.
C. t.
D. analysis of variance.
D. analysis of variance.
Sandra has developed a program designed to increase reading comprehension scores in 6thgraders. She randomly selects three students and has them participate in her program. When she compares the mean score from the students who completed her program to three students who did not participate in the program, she finds no significant difference between their mean scores. What is most likely the reason for the non-significant finding?
A. A true research hypothesis
B. Too strong of a manipulation
C. A small sample size
D. The use of 6th grade children
C. A small sample size
A consumer analyst asks participants to rate the comfort of the ride for two brands of all-terrain tires: Trail Cushion and Mud Handler. Trail Cushion was rated more comfortable with a mean of 5.5 than Mud Handler with a mean of 4.3. The Type I error would be to conclude that Trail Cushion was
A. more comfortable than Mud Handler when the two tires are identical in comfort.
B. more comfortable than Mud Handler when a true difference in comfort exists.
C. no more comfortable than Mud Handler when no difference in comfort exists.
D. no more comfortable than Mud Handler when Trail Cushion is actually more comfortable.
A. more comfortable than Mud Handler when the two tires are identical in comfort.
Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true is called a _____________ error, whereas not rejecting a false null hypothesis is called a _____________ error.
A. significant; nonsignificant
B. Type II; Type I
C. minor; major
D. Type I; Type II
D. Type I; Type II
Your lab group must choose a significance test to determine if the mean scores of two groups are significantly different. The appropriate test is a(n)
A. analysis of variance.
B. t-test.
C. Chi-square.
D. Mann-Whitney U.
B. t-test.
The null hypothesis is rejected whenever
A. the researcher is convinced that the variable is ineffective in causing changes in behavior.
B. past studies prove it to be wrong.
C. there is a high probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
D. there is a low probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
D. there is a low probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
A researcher was interested in differences in attitudes about marriage between men and women. She predicted that women would have different attitudes about marriage than men. What would be the null hypothesis?
A. Gender and attitude are not related.
B. Women have more positive attitudes than men.
C. There is no difference between men and women in their attitudes toward marriage.
D. Men have more positive attitudes than women.
C. There is no difference between men and women in their attitudes toward marriage
A researcher assesses the length of prison sentence assigned to a physically attractive or unattractive defendant. The researcher believes that attractive defendants will be assigned shorter prison sentences than unattractive defendants. The research hypothesis would be
A. some other variable such as gender is responsible for difference in assigned length of prison sentence.
B. there is no difference in length of prison sentence received by attractive versus unattractive defendants.
C. physically attractive defendants will receive shorter prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
D. physically attractive defendants will receive longer prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
C. physically attractive defendants will receive shorter prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
In testing differences between means, the _____________ hypothesis would suggest the population means are different.
A. significant
B. null
C. practical
D. research
D. research
The statement that the independent variable had no effect is called the _____________ hypothesis.
A. significant
B. null
C. practical
D. research
B. null
Inferential statistics allow us to arrive at conclusions about the _____________ on the basis of _____________ data.
A. dependent variable; independent variable
B. population; sample
C. independent variable; dependent variable
D. sample; population
B. population; sample
What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics? Descriptive statistics ____________, while inferential statistics ____________.
A. determine the probability that results are due to chance; summarize data
B. use ratio data; use nominal data
C. summarize data; determine the probability that results are due to chance
D. use nominal data; use ratio data
C. summarize data; determine the probability that results are due to chance
You find that the correlation between two variables is +.63 but that this correlation drops to +.20 when a third variable is partialed out. You should conclude that
A. None of these
B. the third variable was not a factor in the correlation.
C. the third variable was responsible for the original correlation between the variables.
D. considering the third variable increased accuracy of prediction.
C. the third variable was responsible for the original correlation between the variables.
When a researcher is interested in predicting some future behavior based on a person's score on some other variable, they should
A. None of these
B. construct several criterion variables.
C. demonstrate that there is a reasonably high correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.
D. construct a structural model.
C. demonstrate that there is a reasonably high correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.
A regression equation is used to
A. predict the difference between scores on X from the scores on Y.
B. determine the strength of the relationship between X and Y.
C. predict a score on Y from a known score on X.
D. determine the causal relationship between X and Y.
C. predict a score on Y from a known score on X.
In assessing the relationship between variable X and variable Y, the squared value of the correlation coefficient (r2) is sometimes reported. This value represents
A. the percent of variability in Y that can be accounted for by X.
B. the amount of variability in variable X.
C. the effect size for the variables.
D. the amount of variability in variable Y.
A. the percent of variability in Y that can be accounted for by X.
Mel finds the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is -.63. However, the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time is +.52. Mel can conclude
A. None of these
B. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is weaker than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
C. the direction of the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is approximately the same as the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
D. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is stronger than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
D. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is stronger than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
Brewster measures the height and age of four and five year-olds. To his surprise, he finds no correlation between height and age. What is most likely responsible for his results?
A. There is too much variability in the sample to accurately calculate a correlation
B. Age and height are not related.
C. He has restricted the range of the variables.
D. A curvilinear relationship exists between the variables.
C. He has restricted the range of the variables.
In a perfect positive relationship between two variables
A. All of these
B. knowing an individual's score on one variable will allow us to predict exactly what his or her score will be on the other variable.
C. all of the scores on one variable will be the same as the scores on the other variable.
D. the correlation coefficient would range between -1.0 and +1.0.
B. knowing an individual's score on one variable will allow us to predict exactly what his or her score will be on the other variable.
Henry finds that for automobile owners, as the price of gasoline increases, the amount of miles they drive in a week decreases. This finding would suggest ____________ relationship.
A. no
B. a positive
C. a curvilinear
D. a negative
D. a negative
A researcher finds that out of 400 pet owners surveyed, 250 own only a dog, 125 own only a cat, and 25 own only a bird. Which measure of central tendency is the most appropriate for this data?
A. Standard deviation
B. Mean
C. Mode
D. Median
C. Mode
An automobile repair shop reports that half of the automobiles they repair have a resale value below $8000. In this example, the $8000 represents which measure of central tendency?
A. Standard deviation
B. Mean
C. Median
D. Mode
C. Median
A teacher writes the results of a test on the board: 7 students received A's, 10 students received B's, 18 students received C's, 4 students received D's, and 1 student received an F. In statistical terms, this is a
A. correlation table.
B. measure of central tendency.
C. frequency distribution.
D. measure of variability.
C. frequency distribution.
Which of the following best represents use of an interval scale?
A. Naming the different brands of cars seen in the school's parking lot
B. Identifying the order of finish for runners in a marathon
C. Measuring the number of boxes of cookies sold by scouts on the west versus the east side of town
D. Assessing students' ratings of their professors performance on a five point scale from "poor" to "excellent"
D. Assessing students' ratings of their professors performance on a five point scale from "poor" to "excellent"
A difference between an interval scale and a ratio scale is
A. a ratio scale has an absolute zero point; an interval scale does not.
B. an interval scale has equal intervals; a ratio scale does not.
C. an interval scale has an absolute zero point; a ratio scale does not.
D. a ratio scale has equal intervals; an interval scale does not.
A. a ratio scale has an absolute zero point; an interval scale does not.
When a scale designed to measure honesty actually measures a person's honesty, the scale is said to have
A. consistency.
B. reactivity.
C. construct validity.
D. reliability.
C. construct validity.
One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use
a.a socially desirable procedure
b.reverse control groups
c.a double-blind procedure
d.a non-representative sample
c.a double-blind procedure
Statistics that are used to summarize and organize data are called
a.descriptive statistics
b.numerical statistics
c.inferential statistics
d.computational statistics
a.descriptive statistics
Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
a.the longest hair
b.mid-length hair
c.the shortest hair
d.either extremely long or extremely short hair
a.the longest hair
Perhaps the greatest disadvantage or limitation associated with descriptive research methods is
a.the inability to look at important variables like nutritional effects on behavior
b.an insensitivity to ethical concerns
c.the inability to control events and isolate cause and effect linkages
d.the fact that these methods usually focus attention too narrowly on a single variable
c.the inability to control events and isolate cause and effect linkages
Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable as used in the experimental method. Give an examle of each, then give an example of an extranous or confounding variable.
Independent variables are conditions that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable. Dependent variables are the variables that are thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable. Independent variables are manipulated; dependent variables are measured.
You develop a new measure of love and you decide it looks like it measures love. You have demonstrated..
a. concurrent validity
b. discriminant validity
c. face validity
c. face validity
You develop a new measure of love and you find that people who score higher on your measure show more loving behavior than people who score low, you have demonstrated...
a. concurrent validity
b. divergent validity
c. predictive validity
c. predictive validity
The textbook describes a study in which the need-for-achievement test was administered to a group of children and then the children were observed while they played a ring-toss game. The purpose of this study was to establish ______ validity for the test.
a. face
b. concurrent
c. predictive
c. predictive
Which type of validity requires multiple research studies, usually conducted over a long period of time?
a. face
b. concurrent
d. construct
a. face
A condederate is a person who
a. poses as a participant
b. assists the experiment in collecting data
c. decides to stop his/her participation in a study
a. poses as a participant
Strong manipulations are used to _____ the effect of the ____varibable.
A. minimize, IV
b. maximize, IV
c. minimize, DV
b. maximize, IV
In studying the effect of temperature on ice cream cone sales, a researcher could record the number of ice cream cones sold on cold versus hot days. The researcher would be most interested in
comparing group means.
Which one of the following would be an appropriate measure of central tendency to summarize ordinal data?
Median
A host of a home repair program rates the difficulty of various home improvement projects. He assigns the level of difficulty by using hammers: 3 for very difficult, 2 for moderate, and 1 for easy. This measure is an example of a(n) _____ scale.
ordinal
The range and the standard deviation are both
(a) measures of variability.
(b) descriptive statistics.
(c) useful ways to summarize data.
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
Brewster measures the height and age of four and five year-olds. To his surprise, he finds no correlation between height and age. What is most likely responsible for his results?
He has restricted the range of the variables.
Henry finds that for automobile owners, as the price of gasoline increases, the amount of miles they drive in a week decreases. This finding would suggest _____ relationship
negative
A predictor variable is generally analogous to a(n) ________ variable in the experimental method.
independent
A teacher writes the results of a test on the board: 7 students received A's, 10 students received B's, 18 students received C's, 4 students received D's, and 1 student received an F. In statistical terms, this is a
frequency distribution.
A researcher finds that out of 400 pet owners surveyed, 250 own only a dog, 125 own only a cat, and 25 own only a bird. Which measure of central tendency is the most appropriate for this data?
Mode
Any set of scores may be described by measures of ________ and ________
central tendency; variability
Rachel is interested in math skills of boys versus girls in the sixth grade. She administers a series of math problems to both groups and asks them to solve as many problems as they can within a 15-minute period. She finds that both groups were only able to answer 2% of the problems. Rachel's results may be due to a _____ effect.
floor
Which type of manipulation is carried out by manipulating variables with instructions and stimulus presentations?
Straightforward
A(n) _____ provides evidence to indicate what brain processes are involved while an individual works on a cognitive task.
fMRI (functional MRI)
Staged manipulations are...
(a) are often used to create some psychological state in the participant.
(b) frequently employ a confederate.
(c) may demand a great deal of ingenuity and acting ability.
(d) All of these
d. all of these
A placebo group
(a) receives an inert substance.
(b) controls for certain alternative explanations.
(c) Both A and B
(d) Neither A nor B
Both A and B
When using more than one dependent measure in a study, the researcher should
(a) be aware of the order of presentation of the measures.
(b) consider counterbalancing the presentation of the measures.
(c) present the most important measures first.
(d) all of these
(d) all of these
Dr. Mills measures participants' brain-wave activity in order to study the brain's response to sounds of varying frequencies. Dr. Mills is likely to be using which type of physiological measure?
EEG
Strong manipulations are used to ________ the effect of the ________ variable.
maximize; independent
Professor Smith surveys her students in order to examine their preference for an individual or a group research project. The responses Professor Smith collects would be an example of what type of measures?
self report
A researcher who measures the speed of helping in an emergency is using a ________ measure.
behavioral
In a study examining the effect of appearance on judgments of criminal behavior, a researcher asks questions about the surroundings and the victim in order to disguise the dependent measures in the study. These unrelated questions are referred to as
filler items
In an experimental study on gender bias in hiring, after being presented with the stimulus materials, participants were able to determine the purpose of the study. This problem is an example of
a demand characteristic.
Using the strongest possible manipulation
(a) is particularly important in the early stages of research.
(b) may be ethically impractical.
(c) may involve a situation that rarely occurs in the real world.
All of these
Failure of the experimenter to control some extraneous variable may result in a(n)
confound
Mortality refers to the fact that participants sometimes
drop out of experiment
A researcher wants to find out how much fins increase swimming speed. This hypothesis could be tested with a counterbalanced repeated measures design by
having half the swimmers first swim without fins and then with fins, and having the other half swim first with fins and then without fins.
An investigator wanted to see whether packaging information affects the way teenagers rate the effectiveness of soap. The same soap was put in three packages: (a) a pink wrapper that says "For Keeping Your Skin Baby Soft"; (b) a red wrapper that says "For Eliminating Acne"; and (c) a white wrapper that says nothing. Each teenager was asked to rub his or her face with dirt and wash with soap A; the same procedure was followed for soaps B and then C. The time it took to get the face clean was recorded each time. What is the intended independent variable?
packaging information
Jesse states that in his experiment, he has counterbalanced his conditions. What does this mean?
All possible orders of presentation of conditions are presented.
When a confound is discovered in an experiment,
internal validity is challenged
A design that has two conditions with different participants in each condition is a(n) ______ design.
independent groups
Madison wants to examine the effect of a defendant's appearance on judgment of guilt for a crime. She has participants read an identical account of a crime except for the defendant's appearance. A group of high school students receive a description of an attractive defendant while a group of senior citizens receive a description of an unattractive defendant. Both groups are then asked to rate the defendant's guilt on a 7-point scale. A major confound in Madison's experiment is
the age of the participants.
Which of the following is a true of using repeated measure designs over independent group designs?
The researcher has greater control over participant differences.
To control for order effects in a repeated measures design, you should use
counterbalancing techniques.
A graduate student randomly assigns students in a class to taste either Coke or Pepsi. Students rate their liking for the soda on a scale from 1 to 10. This is an example of a ________ design.
posttest only
Random assignment of half of the participants to group one and the other half to group two:
(a) prevents any systematic bias.
(b) minimizes any difference due to the participants' characteristics.
(c) increases the chance that any difference between group one and two is due to the manipulation.
(d) All of these
all
Which of the following does not increase the likelihood of internal validity?
use of pretest
A research psychologist has participants serve as their own control group by having them take part in every condition of his study. This experimental approach is an example of a(n)
repeated measures design.
In the early stages of a research project, the researcher would want a _________ as possible in order to demonstrate that a relationship between variable exists.
strong manipulation
A major area of applied research that evaluates the social reforms and innovations that occur in government, industry, and mental health settings is ________ research
Program evaluation
A psychologist is interested in which of two sorting techniques leads to better memory performance in 6 year olds. Each participant first sorts a set of pictures any way he or she would like. Recall is then tested. After this, each participant is required to sort an equivalent set of pictures into five predetermined categories. Recall for the items in this test is then tested. What procedure does this study represent?
repeated measures
A researcher examined the effect of lighting on learning. Randomly assigned participants learned material while using a 100 watt or a 125 watt bulb. There were no differences between the two groups. The non significant results may have occurred because of
insufficient strength of the manipulation
A researcher wants to examine the effect of room temperature on task performance. She places on group of participants in a room that is 54 degrees, a second group in a room that is 72 degrees, and a third in a room that is 90 degrees. She then measures the amount of time it takes each group to complete an identical task. This design would best represent a(n) _______ design.
independent groups
When a scale desgined to measure honesty actually measures a person's honest, the scale is said to have
construct validity
When a measure relates consistently to other measures of the same concept it shows _________ validty
convergent
You are developing a measure of skills needed for the successful performance a job. You include items the job supervisor feels are relevant for the job. What type of validity would this procedure best represent?
face
Which of the following would not be an example of an interval scale of measurement?
A) A measure of temperature using the Fahrenheit scale
B) A measure of temperature using the Celsius scale
C) Measuring the time it takes to run 100 yards
D) A measure of an individuals introversion
c
Scales that measure physical dimensions such as number of items correct, amount of alcohol consumed, and time to respond would be an example of a(n) ___ scale.
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
d
A difference between an interval scale and a ratio scale is:
A) An interval scale has equal intervals; a ratio scale does not
B) A ratio scale has equal intervals; an interval scale does not
C) An interval scale has an absolute zero point; a ratio scale does not
D) A ratio scale has an absolute zero point; an interval scale does not
d
When a confounding variable is present in an experiment, one cannot tell whether the results were due to the:
A) IV or the DV
B) IV or the confounding variable
C) DV or the internal variable
D) DV or the participant variable
B) IV or the confounding variable
Which of the following accurately describes a disadvantage of using a pretest posttest design?
A) A pretest maximizes participant mortality.
B) If participants drop out, you no longer have equal groups.
C) A pretest can sensitize the participants to the manipulation.
D) This design does not allow you to rule out regression effects.
c
Random assignment of half of the participants to group one and the other half to group two:
A) Prevents any systematic bias
B) Minimizes any difference due to the participants characteristics
C) Increases the chance that any difference between group one and two is due to the manipulation
D) All of these
d
Rachel is interested in math skills of boys versus girls in the sixth grade. She administers a series of math problems to both groups and asks them to solve as many problems as they can within a 15-minute period. She finds that both groups were only able to answer 2% of the problems. Rachel's results may be due to a ____ effect.
A) Performance
B) Maximum
C) Ceiling
D) Floor
d
Any feature of an experiment that might inform participants of the purpose of the study is called a(n):
A) Experiment expectancy
B) Demand characteristic
C) Placebo group
D) Manipulation check
b
A factorial design involves
A) Manipulating two or more independent variables
B) An inability to specify the overall effect of an independent variable
C) Having multiple dependent measures
D) All of these
a
In a study examining the effect of room illumination (low, medium, high) and room temperature (cold, warm, hot) on test performance, how many main effects are possible?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 6
D) 9
a
In a study examining the effect of room illumination (low, medium, high) and room temperature (cold, warm, hot) on test performance, how many interactions are possible?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 6
D) 9
a
An interaction occurs whenever:
A) The manipulation check indicates a manipulation failure
B) The effect of one independent variable changes across levels of a second independent variable
C) Both IVs have an effect
D) The DV is effectively manipulated in a factorial design
b
A marketing company wants to determine which cola beverage is most preferred by consumers. A group of participants tastes Cola A and then rates the taste. The group then tastes Cola B and rates the taste for this cola. A second group of participants follows the same procedure. However, they first taste Cola B and then Cola A. This is an example of what type of design?
A) 2x2 independent groups
B) 2x2 repeated measures
C) 2x2 mixed factorial
D) IV x PV
c
General State University recently decided to discontinue its use of the GRE as an admissions tool for its grad programs bc they observed no correlation btw GRE scores and subsequent GPAs...90% of the grades awarded in the grad programs at General State University are A's...what General State has failed to consider in this situation is the issue of:
restrictive range
a correlational technique that involves measuring 3 variables and then statistically removing the effect of the 3rd variable from teh correlation of the remaining 2 variables
partial correlation
a design in which a single group of participants is given a treatment and then tested is a(n) ______________ design
single-group posttest only
the extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulations of the independent variable rather than to some confounding variable
internal validity
a design in which measures are taken on 2 or more groups both before and after a treatment
multiple-group time-series design
design in which at least 2 non-equivalent groups are given a treatment and then a posttest measure
non-equivalent control group posttest only design
design in which participants are assigned to groups based on preexisting variable rather than being randomly assigned to the groups
non-manipulated independent variable
design in which at least 2 non-equivalent groups are given a pretest, then a treatment, and then a posttest measure
non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design
threat to internal validity in which extreme scores, upon retesting, tend to be less extreme, moving toward the mean
regression to the mean
ABA design is to ________ design as a small-n design is to ____________
reversal; a design in which only a few participants are used
single-case design in which baseline measures are taken, the independent variable is introduced, and then removed for baseline measures again
ABA reversal design
a single-case or small-n design in which the intro of the independent variable is assesed over multiple participants, behaviors, or situations
multiple-baseline design
when conducting an experiment w/ more than 2 levels of the independent variable, a ______ is recommended over a _________ bc of the reduced risk of a ___________
one-way ANOVA; t-test ; Type I error
a line graph of the frequencies of individual scores is a ________________
frequency polygon
for a 2-way factorial design there is the possibility o f___________ main effect(s) and __________ interaction effect(s)
2;1
an effect of a single independent variable is a _________effect
main
risk of harm to participants are no greater than risks encountered in daily life or in routine physical or psychological tests.
Minimal Risk
Francis wants to present the average mathematics score attained by the participants in her study. She needs to report a measure of:
Central Tendency
The measure of central tendency used for interval and ratio data is the:
mean
The measure of central tendency that represents the midpoint of the scores in a distribution is the:
median
Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean's confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
face validity
A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
criterion validity
A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
criterion validity
A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people's preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a ______ design.
cross sectional
On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the differences between males and females on a test of spatial reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact, there are no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:
type 1 error
On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the difference between males and females on a test of abstract mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact, there are gender differences in the population, Becky will have made a:
type II error
A variable that is not controlled in a research investigations. In an experiment, the experimental groups differ on both the independent variable and the confounding variable.
Confounding variable
The degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure.
Construct validity
A relationship in which changes in the values of the first variable are accompanied by both increases and decreases in the value of another variable.
Curvilinear relationship
A quasi-experimental design attempts to
a) approximate the control features of true experiments
b) create natural conditions in the laboratory
c) control all extraneous variables after subjects have been randomly assigned
d) measure changes in the manipulated variable
a
Juan wants to test the hypothesis that the mean amount of sales dollars will vary between Oak Ridge; Oak Wood, and Oak Park shopping malls. The appropriate statistical test would be the
a) regression
b) t-test
c) F-test (ANOVA)
d) Correlation
c) F-test (ANOVA)
because there are 3 levels of one independent variable (shopping malls)
-Oak Ridge
-Oak Wood
-Oak Park
A researcher examines the physical attractiveness of a driver involved in an automobile accident (unattractive, average, or attractive) and the severity of damage cause ($550, $1500, or $1500) on judgements of responsibility assigned to the driver. Which of the following represents the design?
a) 2 x 2
b) 2 x 3
c) 3 x 3
d) 1 x 3
Explain your answer and identify the IVs and conditions.
c) 3 x 3
There are 3 Independent variables (attractiveness)
-unattractive
-average
-attractive
There are 3 conditions (severity of damage)
-$500
-$1500
-$2500
?????????
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