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Developmental Psychology (Berk) Chapter 1 -3 test
Terms in this set (59)
Definition of developmental psychology
a field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan
Definition of theory
an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
Nature vs. Nurture controversy
Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
theory of evolution
Social Development Theory
theory of cognitive development
the human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
to go into the field, or natural environment, and record the behavior of interest
the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has equal opportunity to display the response
each participant is asked the same questions in the same way
clinical , case study, method
brings together a wide range of information on one person, including interviews, observations, and test scores
a descriptive, qualitative technique; instead of aiming to understand a single individual, it is directed toward understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation
groups of people differing in age are studies at the same point in time
they conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (called sequences)
researchers gather information on individuals, generally, in natural life circumstances, without altering their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants characteristics and their behavior or development
participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older
By using an unbiased procedure, such as drawing numbers out of a hat or flipping a coin, investigators increase the chances that participants characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups
major limitation of correlational design
we cannot infer cause and effect
the complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
directly observable characteristics
Major reproductive technologies
donor insemination, surrogate motherhood, in vetro fertilization
risk factors for down syndrome
mothers maternal age
How does socioeconomic status affect family functioning
families that are higher on the socioeconomic status are more likely to be cohesive and have a healthy family dynamic
What is the particular impact of worldwide education of girls?
increased life satisfaction and longevity
What are the effects of neighborhood on children and adults?
they give parents from lower SES an ability to entertain and teach their children easier than families from higher SES.
How does the United States compare to other developed countries with regard to child poverty rates, teenage birthrates, and infant mortality?
20th in child poverty,
39th in infant death rates,
20th in teenage birthrates
Pros and cons of twin studies?
they give insight into how upbringing can effect the same individual, but it relies less on genetic traits
Pros and cons of Heritability studies?
they allow genetic to be examined in the world, but it has to be in the same environment
Correlational vs. Experimental design (pros and cons)
correlational goes with naturally occurring things, while experimental looks at changes
preventive measure of gender selection to breed against a disease
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
maternal blood analysis
2nd month of pregnancy, developing organism's cells enter maternal bloodstream.elevated level of alpha fetoprotein may indicate kidney disease, abnormal closure of esophagus, or neural tube defects like anencephaly (absence of most of the brain) and spina bifida(bulging of spinal cord from spinal column). isolated cells can be examined for genetic defects.
a needle-thin tube containing a viewing scope and fiber optics is inserted into the uterus
Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 HZ used to see the developing child
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus, is analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus.
fetal age of zygote
about two weeks
fetal age of embryo
3 to 8 weeks
fetal age of fetus
9 to 12 weeks
What does "viability" mean and when does it occur in fetal development?
the point at which the baby can first survive which is usually between 22 to 26 weeks
What are teratogens?
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
What is the impact of teratogens on the first two weeks of development?
usually does not have an effect
Why do doctors recommend that women planning to get pregant take folic acid?
it reduces more than 70 percent of abnormalities in the neural tube
What are some of the effects of stress on the developing fetus?
possible miscarriage, pre-maturity, low birth rate, infant respiratory and digestive illness, colic, sleep disturbances, and irritability during the first three years.
What is the range of healthy weight gain during pregnancy?
25 to 30 pounds
What is the cause and effect of Fetal Alchohal Syndrome?
When the mother intakes a large amount of alcohol during pregnancy the child can have slow physical growth, facial abnormalities, and brain injuries.
What is Rubella?
a contagious viral disease, akin to measles
What is toxoplasmosis and how can it be avoided during pregnancy?
caused by a parasite found in many animals, it can be avoided by having their cats checked as well as making sure that their meat is cooked thoroughly
What is the criteria and causes for low birth weight?
poverty stricken women that are under stress, undernourished, and exposed to other harmful influences
How does the United States rate in the world for infant mortality?
What explanations does Berk give for the hugh rate of infant mortality in the Unites States?
not giving new mothers free healthcare as well as around 12 weeks off work
What is Kangaroo Care and some of the cultural trends associates with it? What are physical and emotional benefits?
Hold the infant in-between the mothers breasts or on the fathers chest to act as a natural incubator. it improves oxygenation of the baby, temperature regulation, sleep, breastfeeding, alertness, and infant survival.
What are the most common infant reflexes? How long do they last> Why do pediatricians assess newborn reflexes?
Moro, grasp, and stepping reflexes. they last for about six months, testing the reflexes can show any potential problems in the nervous system
What are risk factors of SIDS? Suggestions to minimize risk?
risk factors are low birth rate, prematurity, poor apgar scores, and limp muscle tones. In order to minimize risk cigarette smoke should be avoided at all times
What senses are most developed at birth? Least?
touch is the most developed, while vision is the least developed
What are some of the chemical/hormonal changes that occur in women AND men towards the end of pregnancy?
mothers produce higher amounts of oxytocin, fathers have in increase in prolactin and estrogen and a drop in androgens
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