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Statistics- Chapter 1 Definitions
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Terms in this set (18)
The science of planing studies and experiments; obtaining data; and organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting those data and then drawing conclusions based on them. Statistics has been used in virtually all scientiﬁc ﬁelds and research questions in the various scientiﬁc ﬁelds motivate the development of new statistical methods and theory.
Statistics
Process of a statistical study consists of what three components?
1. Preparation
2. Analysis
3. Conclusion
Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or survey responses.
Data
The complete collection of all
measurements or data that are being considered.
Population
The collection of data from every member of the population
Census
Sub-collection of members selected from the population
Sample
One in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included.
Voluntary Response Sample
This is achieved in a study when we get a result that is very unlikely to occur by chance.
Statistical Significance
Numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population
Parameter
Numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
Statistic
Numerical data consist of numbers representing counts or measurements
Quantitive Data
Data consisting of names or labels
Categorical/ Qualitative Data
Result when the data values are quantitative and the number of values is ﬁnite or countably inﬁnite (if there are inﬁnitely many values, the collection of values is countable if it is possible to count them individually, such as the number of tosses of a coin before getting tails.)
Discrete Data
Result from inﬁnitely many possible quantitative values, where the collection of values is not countable, such as distances from 0 cm to 12 cm.
Continuous Data
Categories only. Data cannot be arranged in order. e.g. colors of automobiles
Nominal Level
Data can be arranged in order but difference either can't be found or are meaningless, e.g. occupation rank.
Ordinal Level
Differences are meaningful, but there is no natural zero starting point and ratios are meaningless, e.g. Body
temperature.
Interval Level
There is a natural zero starting point and ratios make sense, e.g. heights, lengths, distances, volumes.
Ratio Level
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