AP Recent and Intellectual
Terms in this set (87)
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
Camp David Accords
(1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Unsafe at Any Speed
A book by Ralph Nader that told of the dangers of automobiles that owners allegedly knew about and were keeping from the people to increase profits.
A combination of inflation and recession, usually resulting from a supply shock.
Yom Kippur War
This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
Israeli Prime Minister who signed the Camp David Accords in 1979
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
The Feminine Mystique
..., ..., written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
She is known for her opposition to feministic ideas and for her ongoing campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment.She believed the Equal Rights Amendment was bad because there were obvious differences between men and women that should be recognized .
He became the very religious leader after the Shah in Iran who hate the United States . American hostages were taken under his rule.
The Senate Committee that conducted televised investigation into the Watergate scandal. Chaired by Senator Sam Ervin (D-NC),(pictured right)
The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit
a novel written by Sloan Wilson which captured the disappointment that many people felt at the number of families living in conformity
Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Air Traffic Controllers
In response to an August, 1981 strike, President Reagan basically destroyed the union representing them by firing all striking controllers.
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839)
(RN), Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America.
ping pong diplomacy
US and China exchange ping-pong players, 1971, US ping-pong team was invited to all expense paid exhibition trip to China to compete, normally Americans weren't allowed into China because of Communism, leads to Nixon and Mao Zedong becoming friends
Strategic Defense Initiative
Became known as Star Wars and would be able to shoot missiles down from space. Critics claimed it could never be perfected.
an act passed by congress that said the president could not support the Contras; Reagan ignored it during the Iran-Contra affair
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Space Shuttle Challenger
NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service; exploded after takeoff; killed all onboard; used to compete with Soviet Union
Name of UN and US led military operation during the Persian Gulf War when we attacked Iraq with our troops (1992)
National Security Council; headed the initiative in the Iran-Contra Scandal; convicted of perjury but later overturned
A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s
when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis.
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office.
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
A mode of life opposed to the conventional or dominant, that rejects established social values and practices, esp. among the young.
Port Huron Statement
Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
the policies of the first reagan administration which increased defense spending reduced social programs and cut taxes they were based on supply side theory of growing the economy by cutting government interference and taxes
Whip Inflation Now
a program by the Ford administration to curb inflation and dramatic price increases by putting pressure on businesses to lower prices and deter consumers from hording goods
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Veblen is primarily remembered for his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) that introduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption." He is remembered for likening the ostentation of the rich to the Darwinian proofs-of-virility found in the animal kingdom.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Leader of the Panamanian Defense Forces, Noriega supplied information to the CIA during the Bush administration, but was indicted in 1988 for drug and other charges and eventually captured and convicted after a military standoff with U.S. troops in Panama.
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.
A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case.
(RN), , a classified study of the Vietnam War that was carried out by the Department of Defense. An official of the department, Daniel Ellsberg, gave copies of the study in 1971 to the New York Times and Washington Post. The Supreme Court upheld the right of the newspapers to publish the documents. In response, President Richard Nixon ordered some members of his staff, afterward called the "plumbers," to stop such "leaks" of information. The "plumbers," among other activities, broke into the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist, looking for damaging information on him. r Defense Secretary Robert McNamara , revealed among other things that the government had drawn up plans for entering rthe war even as President Johnson promised that he would not send American troops to Vietnam
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
In June 1969, police officers raided this Inn, which was a gay nightclub in New York, and began arresting patrons for attending the place. Gay onlookers taunted the police and then attacked them. Someone started a fire in the Inn, almost trapping people inside. This marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement. New organizations also began to rise up, like the Gay Liberation Front, which was founded in New York.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
'73 AIM organizers let dramatic takeover of trading post @ Wounded Knee on a Sioux reservation (SD) (Site of 1890's massacre of Sioux by white cavalry, symbolized white betrayal & bankruptcy of reservation policy)
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
"Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries." -this oil cartel doubled their petroleum charges in 1979, helping American inflation rise well above 13%.
In the 1970s, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger began an intensive campaign in which he moved back and forth from Israel to Egypt to Syria to try to reach a peace settlement
The Organization Man
Written by William Whyte; attacked the way businesses wanted every employee to be just like the others to keep any individual from dominating or being a threat
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
1967 to study the reason for urban riots, the commission spoke at length about the impact of poverty and racism on the lives of urban blacks in America and emphasized that white institutions created and condoned the ghettoes of America
Bakke v. California
Supreme Court case dealing with affirmative action that ruled that affirmative action programs in principle are constitutional, but a strict quota system wasn't.
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Bay of Pigs
an international crisis the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba
United Farm Workers
organization of migrant workers formed to win better wages and working conditions led by Cesar Chevez
(1888-1948) founder of the enviromental change, going green, turned chicken shed in shack for family to live in, wrote "Sand Country Almanac", caught own food, passion about nature.
Oil tanker that crashed in March 1989, considered largest U. S. oil spill, emptied 35,000 tons of oil into Prince William Sound
the heaviest and most destructive air raids of the entire war on Hanoi, Haiphong, and other NV targets, civilian casualties were high and fifteen B-52's were shot down, on December 30 the bombings were terminated.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Gideon v. Wainright
All defendants in serious criminal cases were entitled to legal counsel, even if they were too poor to afford it
Furman v. Georgia
(1972) Death penalty is cruel and unusual if carried out in "an arbitrary, discriminatory, and capricious manner".
Saturday Night Massacre
dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the Watergate scandal 1973
US v. Nixon
The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is 'demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial
in the 1990's, Pentecostal minister Pat Robertson began a political movement and launched this organization. These and other organizations of the Christian right opposed federal interference in local affairs; denounced abortion, divorce, feminism, and homosexuality; defended unrestricted free enterprise, and supported a strong American posture in the world.
Also known as the "tax revolt", it was a Californian ballot measure in 1978 that slashed property taxes and forced deep cuts in government services.
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
A group that championed free-market capitalism liberated from government restraints, anti-soviet positions in foreign policy, questioned liberal welfare programs, and called for the reassertion of traditional values of individualism and the centrality of the family
Oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. Somewhat triggered by Afghanistan - aiding mujahideen to hurt Soviets
"Openness; called for increased transparency in government institutions and activities within the USSR; Mikhail Gorbachev. Usually paired with "Perestroika"
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
A United Nations agency created by a multinational treaty to promote trade by the reduction of tariffs and import quotas
White House intern whose affair with Bill Clinton led to his impeachment
Considered to be the one crisis of the Bush administrations second term and in is inefficiency to deal with the crisis. It destroyed 80% of New Orleans and more than 1300 people died, while the damages were $150 billion.
Human Genome Project
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world.
A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings.
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
A public assistance program designed to provide healthcare to poor Americans. (Compare to Medicare)
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
A federally funded educational program designed to provide certain categories of high school students the opportunity to atend college.
a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
War on Poverty
Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.
The Other America
Michael Harrington-This novel was an influential study of poverty in the U.S, published by Michael Harrington & it was a driving force behind the "war on poverty." 1/5 of U.S was living below poverty line.