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153 terms

1400 endo hormones edited

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PANCREAS
produces Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin (hormones)
GLUCAGON, INSULIN, SOMATOSTATIN
hormones produced in the Pancreas?
GLUCAGON
released by alpha cells (in pancreas) to INCREASE the blood glucose level
INSULIN
released by beta cells (in pancreas) to DECREASE blood sugar
SOMATOSTATIN
produced in the Pancreas; inhibits secretion of insulin, glucagon, and GH from the anterior pituitary and gastrin from the stomach
ANTERIOR PITUITARY
produces TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (Luteinizing hormone), MSH (Melanocyte-stimulating hormone), GH (Growth hormone) & Prolactin/lactogenic hormone
TSH THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE
stimulates thyroid growth & secretion of the thyroid hormone from anterior pituitary
ACTH ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
stimulates growth & secretion of Gluccorticoids from the adrenal cortex from anterior pituitary
FSH FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
stimulates ovarian follicle to mature and produce estrogen; in the male, stimulates sperm production..anterior pituitary
LH LUTEINIZING HORMONE
acts with FSH to stimulate estrogen production; causes ovulation; stimulates progesterone production by corpus luteum; in male, stimulates testes to produce testosterone..ant. pit.
MSH MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE
causes increase in synthesis and spread of melanin in skin
GH GROWTH HORMONE
stimulates growth by stimulating the epiphyseal plates of long bones and by increasing protein production
PROLACTIN OR LACTOGENIC HORMONE
Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and milk secretion after delivery of baby
POSTERIOR PITUITARY
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & Oxytocin are found in this gland.
OXYTOCIN
stimulates uterine contractions; causes breast to release milk into ducts..post. pituitary
THYROID GLAND
Thyroxine T4 & Triiodothyronine T3, (thyroid hormones) & Calcitonin are produced where?
THYROXINE & TRIIODOTHYRONINE
(from the thyroid gland) control metabolic rate of all cells, aids in carbohydrate, fat & protein metabolism. Both are released in response to TSH
CALCITONIN
(from the thyroid gland), when stimulated, decreases blood calcium (Ca) by promoting excretion of Ca and phosphorus by the kidneys; also decreases bone resorption by maintaining adequate Ca levels.
PARATHYROID GLAND
produces Parathyroid Hormone
PARATHYROID HORMONE
when stimulated, increases blood calcium concentration by promoting resorption of Ca and phosphorus from the bones; by increasing blood calcium levels, bone formation is decreased.
ADRENAL CORTEX
produces Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, hydrocortisone), Mineralocorticoids & Sex hormones (androgen)
GLUCORCORTICOIDS, CORTISOL, HYDROCORTISONE
These (from the adrenal cortex) stimulate gluconeogenesis and increases blood glucose; anti-inflammatory; antimmunity, antiallergy; aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats & proteins
MINERALOCORTICOIDS
regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis by increasing sodium & water reabsorption; stimulates K excretion in the kidneys in adrenocortico gland
SEX HORMONES, ANDROGEN
(from the adrenal cortex) Stimulates sexual drive in females; in males, negligible effect
ADRENAL MEDULLA
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine are produced in what gland?
EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE
(found in the Adrenal Medulla) prolongs and intensifies sympathetic nervous response to stress, resulting in increased heart rate, constriction of blood vessels, dilation of bronchioles & hyperglycemia
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Most disorders of these glands are a result of either over activity or under activity.
ENDOCRINE
Groups of cells secreting substances directly into the blood or lymph circulation and affecting another part of the body
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
This is slower and has longer lasting control over the various body activities and functions.. It exerts control through secretion of hormones that circulate through the blood.
PIUITARY GLAND, HYPOTHALAMUS, THYMUS, PANCREAS, OVARY, TESTES, ADRENAL GLAND, THYROID, PARATHYROIDS, PINEAL GLAND
glands of the endocrine system?
PANCREAS
lies horizontally behind the stomach. The head is attached to the duodenum and the tail reaches to the spleen. It has BOTH exocrine and endocrine functions.
ERNDOCRINE SYSTEM
composed of a group of various glands scattered throughout the body and secrete directly into the blood or lymph circulation.
GLUCAGON
secreted by alpha cells of pancreas, stimulates release of glucose by liver. always a low level of insulin being secreted along with this during times of fasting.
GLUCOSE
(in the blood) regulates the rate of insulin secreted by the pancreas?
HYPOTHALAMUS
located in the lower portion of the brain & produces secretions influencing the production & release of anterior & posterior pituitary hormones.
MASTER GLAND
Pituitary gland
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
level of hormone in the blood is regulated by the homeostasis mechanism called:
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
If the blood level for a specific hormone falls below normal, this causes the specific endocrine gland to produce more of the hormone. When increased to normal levels, this causes a decrease in production.
PARATHYROID GLANDS
usually 4 of these. produce hormones that regulate concentration of blood calcium & phosphorus.
PITUITARY GLAND
aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs
PITUITARY GLAND
"master" gland, because its secretions influence other endocrine glands and body systems. Has an anterior and posterior lobe and is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the Infundibulum. It is the size of a pea and is located in the sella turcica (small depression in sphenoid bone)
THYROID GLAND
butterfly-shaped and lies in the neck. Consists of two lobes (each side trachea, connected by an isthmus). stores iodine and produces hormones including thyroxine, triidothyronine and regulates metabolic rate for carbs, proteins and fats.
ADH ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
(from the posterior Pituitary) stimulates water retention by kidneys to decrease urine secretion
135-145
Normal Syrum Sodium level in blood should be:
ACROMEGALY
hyperpituitarism occurs after epiphyseal closure of bones, there is bone thickening with transverse growth & tissue enlargement. Occurs between 30-50 yrs of age. Progressive enlargement of face & hands. Client has visual defects from pressure of pituitary tumor on optic nerve, soft tissue swelling or hypertrophy of face & extremities. DM, HYPERTENSION & HIGH RISK OF CARDIO DISEASE most serious health consequences.
ACROMEGALY
A client with this pituitary disorder will display thickened ears & nose, marked projection of the jaw. Will have moist, weak doughy handshake. Heart, liver & spleen may enlarge. Also diaphoresis, oily leathery skin, fatigue, heat intolerance, weight gain, headache, joint pain, hirsutism (in females) & sleep disturbance. May have decreased libido or impotence, oligomenorrhea (scanty menses) & infertility.
PARLODEL & SANDOSTATIN
drugs prescribed for acromegaly.
ADRENAL GLANDS
aka Suprarenal glands, located on top of each kidney. Consists of cortex & medulla. Help regulate sodium & electrolyte balance, sex characteristics, metabolism & response to stress.
ADRENAL CORTEX
part of a gland, helps bring up insulin, is responsible for anti-inflammatory, anti-immunity & anti-allergy processes. Secretes cortisol & hydrocortisone, mineralcorticoids & androgen
ADRENAL MEDULLA
part of a gland is responsible for stress responses, sympathetic nervous system, stimulation of epi & norepinephrine. Increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels & dilates bronchials.
FLORINEF & ALDOSTERONE
meds to replace mineralcorticoids (for fluid & electrolyte balance)
ADRENALECTOMY
Surgical removal of adrenal gland. Lifelong replacement of Glucocorticoids & Mineralocorticoids will be necessary w/bilateral procedure.
AGRANULOCYTOSIS
Acute condition causing a severe reduction in the number of granulocytes (basophils, eosinophils, & neutrophils).
AUTOSOMAL
Pertaining to a condition transmitted by any chromosome other than one determining sex.
CUSHINGS SYNDROME
condition that results from the hypersecretion of glutocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
CHVOSTEK'S SIGN
Abnormal spasm of the facial muscles in response to a light tapping of the facial nerve. Noted in clients with hypOcalcemia
CRETINISM
Congenital lack of thyroid hormones causing defective physical development & mental retardation
DIABETES INSIPIDUS
The Hyposecretion (deficiency) of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland, which results in the failure of the tubular re-absorption of water in the kidneys, causes what disease?
DIABETES INSIPIDUS
Hypovolemia (abnormally low circulatory blood volume), circulatory collapse, unconsciousness & CNS damage, bladder distension, enlarged calyces & hydronephrosis are complications of what?
HCTZ
diuretic is used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
DDAVP
THE DRUG OF CHOICE prescribed for neurogenic & gestational diabetes insipidus, enhances reabsorption of water in kidney. a synthetic hormone. also prescribe Vasopressin
CENTRAL DI
This Diabetes insipidus is the most common & caused by a deficiency of ADH.
NEPHROGENIC DI
DI: can be caused by failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH. be caused by pyelonephritis, chronic renal failure, polycystic disease or medications
DIPSOGENIC DI
DI: is a defect in or damage to the thirst mechanism. Results in an extreme increase in thirst & then fluid intake, which suppresses ADH secretion, increasing urine output. Often caused by damage to the hypothalamus.
GESTATIONAL DI
DI: happens during pregnancy. Caused by placenta enzyme that destroys ADH in the mother.
NEUROGENIC DI
DI: may be caused by injury or ischemia to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, CNS infections, head injuries, neurosurgery or sickle cell disease.
EXOCRINE GLANDS
sweat glands & lacrimal glands are responsible for secreting substances directly into ducts that lead to the target area.
ENDOCRINE
Group of cells secreting substances directly into the blood or lymph circulation & affecting another part of the body. Responsible for: vital functions, responds to stress, growth & development, aids metabolism of carbs, proteins & fats. Reproductions. Maintains balance, fluids & electrolytes.
ENDOCRINE
secretions formed by these glands directly enter the blood or lymph circulation.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
slower and has longer lasting control over the various body activities and functions.. It exerts control through secretion of hormones that circulate through the blood.
PIUITARY GLAND, HYPOTHALAMUS, THYMUS, PANCREAS, OVARY, TESTES, ADRENAL GLAND, THYROID, PARATHYROIDS, PINEAL GLAND.
What are the glands of the endocrine system?
EXOPHTHALMOS
Abnormal anterior protrusion of the eyeball, due to THYROTOXICOSIS. An accumulation of orbital fluid behind the eyeball, forcing it to protrude. Caused by Hyperthyroidism.
GIGANTISM
hyperpituitarism affects children, causing proportional overgrowth of all body tissues. Hyperplasia of anterior pituitary is usually the cause of the GH over-secretion. S & S: delayed puberty, dbl vision, increased sweating, large hands & feet w/thick fingers & toes & weakness.
ANTERIOR PITUITARY
Gigantism is usually caused by GH over-secretion of the Posterior or Anterior Pituitary?
GLUCAGON
Hormone secreted by the ALPHA cells of the pancreas, which stimulate release of glucose by the liver
GLUCAGON
This is released by alpha cells (in the pancreas) to increase the blood glucose level
GLYCOSURIA
Presence of excessive glucose in the urine
GOITER
Enlargement of the thyroid gland, a result of over-activity of the thyroid gland.
HIRSUTISM
Excessive body hair in a masculine distribution
HORMONE
Substance that initiates or regulates activity of another organ, system, or gland in another part of the body
HUMATROPE
Med (aka somatropin). Hormone that increases growth. (check for blood sugars & muscle skeletal pain because of growth)
HYPERGLYCEMIA
result of the absence of insulin
HYPERPITUITARISM
usually caused as a result of benign tumors. Usually 20-40 yrs of age. Most common hormones affect are GH & ADH. changes depend on client's age. child = GIGANTISM; adults = ACROMEGALY
HYPERTHYROIDISM
a result of excessive thyroid hormone secretion (overproduction of T3's & t4's).
HYPERTHYROIDISM
Graves disease, Basedow's disease, Parry's disease & thyrotoxicosis are different forms of this: (Grave's disease most common & occurs more in women over 20)
HYPERTHYROIDISM
S & S of this is weight loss despite increased appetite, fatigue, poor tolerance to heat, profuse perspiration. nervous, restless, irritable, difficult concentration, emotionally labile, mood swings, sleep disturbances & personality changes. fine tremors in fingers & tongue, shaky handwriting, clumsiness, trouble climbing stairs or dyspnea on exertion & rest. Skin warm & moist, salmon color, velvety texture, hair fine & soft.
HYPOPITUITARISM
This is a condition marked by metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity, & growth retardation when it occurs in childhood; Simmonds' disease & DI are examples of this.
DWARFISM
Deficiency of the GH results in _____ which becomes apparent by 6 months of age, infant exhibits growth retardation, chubbiness in lower trunk & short stature. Secondary tooth eruption delayed & delay in puberty. Sex hormones may not develop normally unless treated w/hormones. Accelerated pattern of aging.
HYPOPHYSECTOMY
removal of the pituitary gland
HYPOTHALAMUS
located in the lower portion of the brain & produces secretions influencing the production & release of anterior & posterior pituitary hormones.
HYPOVOLEMIA
Abnormally low circulatory blood volume. Complication of untreated D.I.
IATROGENIC
Caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures
INSULIN
Pancreatic hormone that aids in both the diffusion of glucose into the liver & muscle cells, and the synthesis of glycogen
INSULIN
hormone produced and secreted by the beta cells of the "islets of Langerhans" in the pancreas?
INSULIN
stimulates the active transport of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue cells, making it available for cell use.
MYXEDEMA
Severe hypothyroidism in adults that results from Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone. (aka hypothyroidism)
MYXEDMA COMA
disorder that results from persistently low production of thyroid hormones. CAUSE: acute illness, rapid w/drawal of thyroid meds, anesthesia, surgery, hypothermia & use of sedatives & opioids
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
blood level for a specific hormone falls below normal, this causes the specific endocrine gland to produce more of the hormone. When increased to normal levels, this causes a decrease in production. This is HOMEOSTASIS MECHANISM.
PAROXYSMAL
symptom begins and ends abruptly
PARATHYROID GLANDS
produce hormones which regulate concentration of blood calcium & phosphorus. Imbedded in posterior surface of thyroid. Increases blood calcium.
PARLODEL
med for acromegaly. a non-hormonal drug that activates dopamine receptors to inhibit release of GH & prolactin. stimulate ovulation, so Birth Control pills should be backed up with propholatics./ bromocriptine
pituitary hormones
Pituitary tumors more often affect ANTERIOR portion of the pituitary? rarely malignant & replace glandular tissue & enlarge the sella turcica.
PITUITARY GLAND
aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs
PITUITARY TUMOR
tumors start with a headache unrelated to stress or other factors. Visual problems caused by tumor pressing on optic nerve. Also include personality changes, dementia, amenorrhea, impotence, lethargy & weakness. Cold intolerance, increased fatigue, constipation & may have seizures. Damage is done by tumor invasion of normal tissue.
PROLACTIN
Deficiency of this results in absent postpartum lactation, amenorrhea & sparse or absent axillary & pubic hair. There may also be manifestation of thyroid or adrenal cortex failure.
RADIOACTIVE IODINE UPTAKE SCAN
test measures iodine absorption
SANDOSTATIN
aka octreotide. drug used for Acromegaly. Clients w/DM should closely monitor their blood sugar level.
SIADH
from excess of ADH. POSTERIOR pituitary gland continues to release ADH, causing the kidneys to reabsorb excess water, which decreases urine output & increases fluid volume. Client will have hyponatremia, water retention, weight gain, concentrated urine, muscle cramps & weakness. The low osmolality of blood allows fluid to leak out of vessels & causes brain swelling.
LOW SALT, LOW FLUIDS
SIADH will have what kind of restrictions on their diets?
LASIX & FLORINEF
drugs used to treat SIADH
SIMMONDS DISEASE
total absence of ALL PITUITARY secretions. Aka panhypopituitarism. Results from surgery, infection, injury or tumor. Also after difficult labor B/C thrombosis formation during/after delivery. Progresses to bradycardia, hypotension, premature wrinkling & atrophy of thyroid & adrenal glands.
SOMOGYI PHENOMENON
In response to hypoglycemia, the release of glucose-elevating hormones (epinephrine, Cortisol, glucose), which produces a hypERglycemic state.
TSH
Deficiency in a child will result in severe growth retardation, cold intolerance; constipation; increased or decreased menstrual flow, lethargy, dry, pale puffy skin & bradycardia. Thought process may also be slowed
TETANY
Sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints, involving muscle twitching or cramps
THYROID GLAND
lies in the neck. Consists of two lobes (each side of trachea, connected by isthmus). stores IODINE and produces, stores & releases hormones including thyroxine, triidothyronine and regulates metabolic rate for carbs, proteins and fats.
T3 & T4
hormones responsible for regulation of metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart rate, temperature and the nervous system. Production regulated by release of TSH from anterior pituitary gland.
THYROID SCAN
Instructions would be: stop taking synthroid 4-6 weeks before scan & no foods with iodine.
THYROID STORM
Acute, potentially fatal exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. May result from manipulation of thyroid gland during surgery, severe infection or stress.
THYROIDECTOMY
Surgical removal to treat persistent hyperthyroidism or thyroid tumors.
TRANSSPHENOID HYPOPHYSECTOMY
incision in superior maxillary gingival to remove the pituitary gland. Drainage afterward should be clear. If CSF, should be reported to Dr. Check for meningitis. No straining, vomiting or sneezing. Use incentive spirometer instead of coughing. No tooth brushing for 2 weeks. Avoid lifting & bending at waist for 2-3 months after surgery.
PITUITARY GLAND
Transfrontal and Transsphenoid hypophysectomy are two surgical approaches used to remove what?
TRANSFRONTAL HYPOPHYSECTOMY
used to remove large tumors affecting the Pituitary Gland.
TROUSSEAU'S SIGN
sign of hypocalcemia . Carpal spasm caused by inflating a blood pressure cuff above the client's systolic pressure and leaving it in place for 3 minutes.
SIADH
causes the kidneys to reabsorb excess water, which decreases urine output & increases fluid volume. Posterior pituitary gland disorder. Treat w/Furosemide (lasix) , Declomycin & or Florinef
HYPOPITUITARISM
causes metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity & growth retardation in children. Simmonds disease & DI in adults.
ACTH
A deficiency results in fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss & depigmentation of the skin & nipples. Vital sign during stress would show fever & hypotension.
SIMMONDS DISEASE
happens because of HYPOpituitarism. S & S are extreme weight loss, general debility, lethargy, pallor, dry yellowish skin, loss of libido, amenorrhea & intolerance to cold. Leads to loss of axillary & pubic hair & atrophy of genitalia & breasts. Leads to bradycardia, hypotension & wrinkling of skin, atrophy of thyroid & adrenal glands.
ACTH, TSH/ADRENAL, SEX HORMONES
TX: Simmond's Disease for a lifetime because pituitary gland is hypoactive.
HYPOPITUITARISM
Simmonds disease & Diabetes insipidus, Dwarfism are all the result of what?
HYPOTHYROID
Cretinism, Myxedema & Hashimoto's is a result of what?
HASHIMOTO'S
most common cause of hypothyroidism, an autoimmune disease producing antiperoxidase antibodies, which destroy enzyme necessary for production of T3 & T4. ^ incidence in Downs & Turner's Syndrome people.
MYXEDEMA
This disease is a result of Hypothyroidism. S & S are related to reduced metabolic rate (energy loss, fatigue, forgetfulness... weak pulse, bradycardia). Complications affect almost every system. THIS CAN BE LIFE THREATENING!
SYNTHROID
synthetic drug used to treat myxedema (hypothyroidism).
COLD, HOT
With a thyroid scan there are nodules. ____ Nodule means iodine is not being taken up. ____ nodule means iodine is being taken up.
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
This is a condition resulting from overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid glands. Results in increased secretion of PTH, which causes calcium to LEAVE the bones & accumulate in the blood and cannot be excreted in the urine. Hypercalcemia is a result.
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
Hypercalcemia is a result of this:
ADENOMA
Most common cause of Hyperparathyroidism?
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
S & S of this are: Polyuria, chronic low-back pain, bone tenderness, renal calculi. Also may have nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, lethargy or drowsiness. Change in LOC, disorientation, stupor, coma or personality changes & loss of memory.
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
Muscle weakness, atrophy of the legs, joint hyperextensibility, long bone skeletal deformity (because calcium is leeched out of bones), or hyporeflexia & Renal problems; is a result of what?
LASIX
treat Hyperparathyroidism, (b/c hypercalcemia) - geared to DECREASE Ca level in blood.
HYPERTHYROIDISM
Lasix, Calcitonin, plicamycin, magnesium & phosphate based drugs are used to treat what?
HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
This results in a decreased serum calcium level because less PTH is secreted and they regulate the serum calcium level. Can be the result of an autoimmune disorder or congenital absence of these glands.
TETANY
A characteristic sign of hypoparathyroidism is what?
CALCIUM
Tetany, which is muscle spasms & tremors are caused by a lack of this and is present in Hypoparathyroidism.
HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
S&S of this pretty much has to do with anything resulting in loss of calcium. Note: Muscles need Calcium in order to relax.
CUSHINGS DISEASE
This is an adrenal disorder. Caused by hypo secretion of glutocorticoids from adrenal cortex which result in increased ACTH from Pituitary, which increases production of Cortisol. Cortisol controls allergic reaction, regulates ACTH, BP, fluids, metabolism of fat, glucose & immune system.
CUSHINGS
- Adrenal - up glutocorticoids - up ACTH Pituitary - Up Cortisol - Immunity Backs off - Up ACTH Stops Hormones - Down ACTH Too much hormones - Up Glucogenesis - Up Calcium Retention - Obesity, Water Retention
ADDISONS
- HypoAdrenal - Down Mineralcorticoids - Down Glucocorticoids - Down Androgens
ADDISONS
occurs when more than 90% of the adrenal gland is destroyed. Autoimmune disease, TB, Histoplasmosis, HIV & meningococcal pneumonia
ADDISONS
HypoAdrenal disease S & S, bronze coloration (hands, elbows & knees). Vitiligo & Craving for salty foods. Decreased tolerance to minor stress. Hypotension & weak pulse.
ELECTROLYTES, FLUIDS & HORMONES
TX for Addisons, geared toward three things.
PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA
benign tumor. Adrenal Medulla - sustained hypertension caused by excessive secretion of epinephrine/ norepinephrine. CHROMAFFIN CELL
PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA
classic S & S: hypertension w/diastolic pressure above 115mm; unrelenting headache & profuse diaphoreses. Client will have tachycardia. Same complications as those of severe persistent hypertension. triad