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56 terms

HGD Test 1

STUDY
PLAY
Development
The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
Traditional Approach
Perspective that emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.
Life-Span Approach
Perspective that empasizes development change throughout childhood and adulthood.
78
The current life-expectancy is _____ years.
Biological
Dimension that focuses on changes in an individual's physical nature.
Cognitive
Dimension that focuses on changes in though, intelligence and language.
Socioemotional
Dimension that focuses on changes in relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality.
Prenatal Period
The _____ last from conception to birth (9 months) and involves tremendous growth.
Infancy
_____ lasts from birth to 18-24 months and involves dependence on adults and development of many psychological activities.
Early Childhood
_____ lasts from end of infancy to 5-6 years and involves preschool years and self-sufficiency and increased play.
Middle and Late childhood
_____ lasts from 6-11 years and involves reading, writing and arithmatic and focus on achievement and self-control.
Adolescence
_____ has varying endpoints lasting from 10-12 to 18-22 years and involves rapid physical changes and pursuit of independence and identity.
Early adulthood
____ lasts from late teens to early 30's and involves personal and economic independence and selecting a mate.
Middle adulthood
_____ lasts 40-60 years and involves social involvement and resposibility and assisting the next generation.
Late adulthood
_____ lasts 60-70's to death and involves life review, adjustment to new social roles, and is the longes developmental spans.
First age
The _____ of development includes childhood and adolescence.
Second stage
The _____ of development includes prime adulthood (20's-50's)
Third Age
The _____ of development includes approximately 60-79 years of age.
Fourth Age
The _____ of development is approximately 80 years and older.
Nature
_____ proponents argue that an evolutionary and genetic foundation produces commonalities in growth and development.
Nurture
_____ proponents emphasize the importance of both biological and social environment.
Psychoanalitic
_____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious. True understanding requires analyzing the symbolic meaning of behavior. Early experiences with parents extensively shape development.
Freud's
_____ theory focuses on sexual impulses changes throught development and five stages of psychosexual development.
Erikson's Psychosocial
_____ thoery focuses on our desire to affiliate with other people and proposes 8 stages of development.
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental
_____ theory stresses conscious thought and empasizes the processes of organization and adaptation.
Behavioral and Social Cognitive
_____ theories: development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience.
Bandura's Social Cognitive
______ theory: Behavior, environment, and cognition are key factors in developement.
Chromosomes
Thread like structures made up of DNA
Genes
Units of heredity information in each chromosome.
DNA
A complex double-helix molecule that contains genetic information,
Proteins
Building blocks of cells and regulators that direct the body's processes.
20,000-22,000
Humans have ____ genes.
46; 23
All cells have ____ chromosomes arranged in _____ pairs.
Mitosis
Reproduction of cells in which the nucleus (including chromosomes) duplicate and cell divides.
Meosis
Cell division that forms sperm and eggs. Each cell divides twice forming 4 cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.
Identical (monozygotic)
_____ twins develop from a single zygote that splits in two.
Fraternal (dizygotic)
_____ twins develop from seperate eggs and sperm.
Down Syndrome
_____ is cause by the presense of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
Germinal
____ period: First 2 weeks after conception; zygote created. Rapid cell division.
Embryonic
_____ period: occurs from 2-8 weeks after conception.
Fetal
_____ period: begins 2 months after conception and lasts until birth. Begins when blastocyst attaches to uterine wall.
Trophoblast
Outer layer of cells that provides nutrition and support for the embryo.
Amnion
A bag that contains clear fluid in which the embryo floats.
Umbilical Cord
Connects the baby to the placenta
Placenta
Group of tissues containing the mother and baby's intertwined blood vessels.
24 weeks
Viablity is currently _____.
Teratogen
Any agent that can cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes
Psychoactive Drugs
Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
Stage 1
_____ of the birthing process: uterine contractions begin at 15-20 minutes apart and last up to 1 minute, becoming closer and more intense. Lasts 12-14 hours.
Stage 2
_____ of the birthing process: Baby's head begins to move through dialated cervix opening and eventually emerges from the mothers body. Lasts approximately 45 minutes.
Stage 3
_____ of the birthing process: umblicical cord, placenta, and other membranes are detached and expelled.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assesment Scale (NBAS)
Test typically performed 24-36 hours after birth. Asseses newborn's neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)
Test that provides a more comprehensive analysis of newborn's behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities. Asseses the "at-risk" infant.
5 1/2 pounds
Low birthweight infants way less that _____ at birth.
Preterm Infants
Infants born three weeks or more before full-term.
Postpartum
_____ period lasts about 6 weeks or until the mother's body has completed its adjustment and has returned to nearly pre-pregnant state.