Some Web-based encrypted e-mail systems—such as the popular free ____ service—require both the sender and recipient to have accounts through that system.
A ____ provides a secure private tunnel from the user's computer through the Internet to another destination and is most often used to provide remote employees with secure access to a company network.
virtual private network
____ are acts of malicious destruction to a computer or computer resource.
A computer that is controlled by a hacker or other computer criminal is referred to as a ____.
____ is a generic term that refers to any type of malicious software.
A computer ____ is a software program that is installed without the permission or knowledge of the computer user, that is designed to alter the way a computer operates, and that can replicate itself to infect any new media it has access to.
Like a computer virus, a ____ is a malicious program designed to cause damage.
A ____ is a malicious program that masquerades as something else—usually as some type of application program.
A computer ____ spreads by creating copies of its code and sending those copies to other computers via a network.
____ occurs when someone obtains enough information about a person to be able to masquerade as that person for a variety of activities—usually to buy products or services in that person's name.
____ can be extremely distressing for victims, can take years to straighten out, and can be very expensive.
Phishing schemes may use a technique called ____, which is setting up spoofed Web sites with addresses slightly different from legitimate sites.
____ is a type of scam that uses spoofed domain names to obtain personal information for use in fraudulent activities.
The best protection against many dot cons is ____.
Repeated threats or other harassment carried out online between adults is referred to as ____.
Computer crime is sometimes referred to as ____.
____ occurs whenever an individual gains access to a computer, network, file, or other resource without permission.
____ refers to the act of breaking into a computer or network.
Advocates of ____ state that, unless individuals or businesses protect their access points, they are welcoming others to use them.
The term ____ refers to accessing someone else's unsecured Wi-Fi network from the hacker's current location (such as inside his or her home, outside a Wi-Fi hotspot location, or near a local business).
____, the most commonly used type of possessed knowledge, are secret words or character combinations associated with an individual.
____ access systems use physical objects for identification purposes and they are frequently used to control access to facilities and computer systems.
____ identify users by a particular unique biological characteristic.
Biometric access systems
A ____ is a security system that essentially creates a wall between a computer or network and the Internet in order to protect against unauthorized access.
____ uses a single secret key to both encrypt and decrypt the file or message.
Private key encryption
____ are small programs that take care of software-specific problems, or bugs, such as security holes.
Creating a ____ means making a duplicate copy of important files so that when a problem occurs, you can restore those files using the copy.
To supplement backup procedures, businesses and other organizations should have a(n) ____.
disaster recovery plan
A(n) ____ is an alternate location equipped with the computers, cabling, desks, and other equipment necessary to keep a business's operations going.
The term ____ refers to the rights of individuals and companies to control how information about them is collected and used.
____ are used for marketing purposes, such as sending advertisements that fit each individual's interests or trying to sign people up over the phone for some type of service.
A marketing activity that can be considered a privacy risk is ____.
Collecting in-depth information about an individual is known as ____.
Most businesses and Web sites that collect personal information have a(n) ____ that discloses how the personal information you provide will be used.
When spam is sent via IM it is called ____.
For online shopping, signing up for free offers, discussion groups, product registration, and other activities that typically lead to junk e-mail, use a disposable or ____.
throw-away e-mail address
One common way to deal with spam that makes it to your computer is to use a(n) ____.
By ____, you instruct companies you do business with that they cannot share your personal data with third parties.
____ is used specifically for the purpose of recording keystrokes or otherwise monitoring someone's computer activity.
Computer monitoring software
____ is the use of video cameras to monitor activities of individuals, such as employees or individuals in public locations, for work-related or crime-prevention purposes.
____ cameras are also increasingly being installed in schools in the United States and other countries to enable administrators to monitor both teacher and student activities.
____ refers to companies recording or observing the actions of employees while on the job.
For monitoring the physical locations of employees, video cameras can be used, but another possibility is the use of ____.
Our networked society has raised a number of ____ concerns.
Hardware loss, as well as other security issues, can result from hardware damage (both intentional and accidental) and ____.
Although many of us may prefer not to think about it, ____—the complete malfunction of a computer system—and other types of computer-related disasters do happen.
To facilitate using a computer lock, nearly all computers today come with a ____—a small opening built into the system unit case designed for computer locks.
____ can be used to secure portable computers, external hard drives, and other portable pieces of hardware to a table or other object.
One recent development in new technology is ____ that can remove contaminants from water sources.
A(n) ____ computer uses light, such as from laser beams or infrared beams, to perform digital computations.
While some researchers are working on developing an all-optical computer, others believe that a mix of optical and electronic components, referred to as an ____ computer, may be the best bet for the future.
One new improvement to videoconferencing technology to make it more closely mimic a real-time meeting environment is ____ conferencing.
Power over Ethernet (PoE) allows both ____ power and data to be sent over standard Ethernet cables.
The speed and distance of a Wi-Fi network depends on a variety of factors, such as the particular Wi-Fi standard and ____.
the number of solid objects between the access point and PC (walls, doors); interference from devices using radio frequencies (baby monitors, microwave ovens); the hardware being used
____ applications that exist in some form today include intelligent agents, expert systems, neural networks, and robotics.
____ provide help or assistance for a particular application program. Some can detect when the user might be having trouble with the program and automatically offer appropriate advice.
The ____ Web is a predicted evolution of the current Web in which all Web content is stored in formats that are more easily read by software applications and intelligent agents.
One example of a neural network is a(n) ____ system that uses cameras to inspect objects and make determinations-for example, the systems that check products for defects at manufacturing plants.
When using a(n) ____ system, it is important to realize that its conclusions are based on the data and rules stored in its knowledge base, as well as the information provided by the users.
____ is the process of connecting the brain with a computer, such as implanting electrodes directly into the brain to restore lost functionality to or facilitate the communications of severely disabled individuals.
Privacy-rights advocates worry that the ____ could someday be used by the government to track citizens.
____ is involved with the development of robotic prosthetic arms that feel, look, and perform like natural arms, which will be used by military personnel who are injured in the line of duty.
An emerging military robotic application is the ____ suit, which is a wearable robotic system designed to give an individual additional physical capabilities and protection.
Telesurgery is typically ____ than normal surgery.
less invasive and more precise
Typically, 3D chips are created by layering individual ____ wafers on top of one another with a special machine that uses cameras to align the wafers properly.
Designed initially for mobile phones and other portable devices, an IMOD screen is essentially a complex mirror that uses ____ light to display images.
To record data, holographic storage systems split the light from a blue laser beam into two beams-a ____ beam whose angle determines the address used to store data at that particular location on the storage medium and a signal beam that contains the data.
With holographic storage systems, the signal beam passes through a device called a ____ light modulator (SLM) which translates the data's 0s and 1s into a hologram.