40 terms

modules 24-28

memory
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Terms in this set (...)

cognition
mental activities associated w/ thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
memory
Elizabeth Loftus-"When recalled BLANK are reconstructed from a few highlights using info that may ot may not of been correct," ability to store and retrieve information
sensory memory
small storehouse, immediate, brief recording of sensory info in the memory system
working (short-term) memory
storehouse, concious active processing of incoming info retrieved from long term memory storehouse, deals w/ new and old info, George Miller says person can remember 7 + or - 2 things
long-term memory
storehouse, relatively limitless abd permanent storehouse of memories
encoding
getting info into our brain
storage
effortful precesses, retaining info
retrieval
effortful processes, getting info out of storage
rehearsal
effortful processes, concious repitition of info, maintains info in conciousness, encode it into storage
overlearning
effortful processes, learn everyday=easier to remember
spacing effect
effortful processes, the tendency of distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than what is achieved through study (cramming)
serial position effect
effortful processes, tendency to have better recall for items in specific positions on a list
primary effect
effortful processespart of serial position effect, remember beginning of list
recency effect
effortful processespart of serial position effect, remember end of list
shallow
level of processing, "look like"
intermediate
level of processing, "sound like"
deep
level of processing, "the meaning", result in longer lasting memories
flashbulb memory
clear memory of emotionally significant moment/event, are succeptable to error (OJ Simpson trial)
cognative psychology
the study of mental activities or thought processes related to attention, learning, intelligence, problem solving, decision making, language, and memory
encoding, storage, retrieval
three necessary processes involved in memory
attention
effortful process that influences encoding, focus, awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events, inc BLANK inc encoding(next in line effect), rehearsal, spacing effect, serial positioning, level of processing
dual coding theory
effortful processes, semantic and visual encoding
long-term potentiation
the biological basis for memory (LTP) requires electircal activity, synapses change so that those two neurons will fire together, or the inc of firing after a brief rapid electrical stimulation
explicit memory
one of the two types of memories, things you are conciously aware of factual information (ex: what you had for breakfast)
implicit memory
one of the two types of memories, memories you form without thinging about it (ex: how to tie your shoes),
explicit memory
in the hippocampus
implicit memory
in the cerebellum
interference
sleep helps avoid this, when learning/ or remember something new interferes with retrieving old memories bc of forgetting
imagination inflation
effect on accuracy of memory, the incr likelyhood that someone will remember something imagined as having occurred, playes important role in eye witness testimony
repression
type of motivated forgetting, process if forcing traumatic/stressful/anxiety producing experiences from memory, coined by Freud, its a defense mechanism
elaboration
linking stimulus to other information, helps encode information better into memory, part of effortful processes
effects of long-term stress on memory
chronic damages dec ability to remember
effects of short term stress on memory
inc accuracy and ability to retrieve memories
retrieval failure
cant remember something in long-term memory at the time
mnemonic devices
memory aids (Loci--relate things to surroundings, acronyms, chunking--chunk info that goes together into a unit, hierarchies--outlines)
sources of forgetting
encoding failure--never forming the memory to begin w/, storage decay--memory starts to weaken, retrieval failure, repression
conclusions regarding repression
most memories are remembered, some are repressed, if recovered by drugs or hypnosis the memory could be inaccurate, b4 age of 3= unbelievable, its upsetting for victim
recall
retrieve info from long-term memory(fill in the blank questions)
recognition
put info infront of you-you say which is right (mult. choice questions)
relearning
when someone learns something then forgets it then relearns it..it takes less time to relearn