all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue.
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda.
issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time.
effects a policy has on people and problems. analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and at what cost.
system of selecting policymakers and of organizing govt so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. in a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected.
principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument
basicprinciple of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders adn the many followers.
theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
elite and class theory
theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided among class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the niceties of governmental organization.
theory of gopo contending that groups are so strong that govt is weakened. Extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism.
condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy
According to Carpini and Keeter, how does political knowledge benefit people?
1. fosters civic virtue 2. helps citizens identify policies that truly benefit them and incorporate that info into voting behavior 3. promotes active participation in politics
What functions do all governments have in common?
maintain national defense, provide public services, preserve order, socialize the young, collect taxes
policymaking institution regarded by political scientists as a fourth policymaking institution but not in const
Robert Dahl's five criteria for an ideal democratic process
equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of the agenda, inclusion,
4 major challenges to democracy in the United States
increased technical expertise, limited participation in govt, escalating campaign costs, diverse political interests
5 elements of the American creed according to LIpset
liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, laissez-faire, populism,
Wayne Baker's outline on why America may be experiencing a crisis of cultural values
loss over time of traditional values such as the importance of religion and family life, unfavorable comparison with the citizens of other countries in terms of values such as patriotism or support for moral principles, division of society into opposed groups with irreconciable moral differences.
a nation's basic law. it creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
the French and Indian War
GB gained enormous new territory in North America...increased taxes on colonists to pay for defense and administration of new territory
major complaints of colonists about British rule
increased taxes, trade restrictions, no representation in Parliament
Declaration of Independence
document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence
natural rights, consent of the governed, limited government, purpose of govt--protect personal property and natural rights
Locke argued that in extreme cases
people have the right to revolt against a govt that no longer has their consent
Two limits on govt according to Locke
1. govt must provide standing laws so that people know in advance whether their acts will be acceptable 2. govt cannot take from any man any part of his property without his consent
rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, include life, liberty, and property. Central to Locke's philosophy, widely accepted among America's founding fathers
idea that certain restrictions should be placed on govt to protect the natural rights of citizens.
How is the diversity of the American people reflected?
diversity of interests represented in the political system
author of "Second Treatise of Government" whose ideas most profoundly influenced American political leaders.
How did Jefferson alter Locke's phrase: Life, liberty, and Property?
Life Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
1786, small group of farmers in western Massachusetts led by Captain Daniel Shays rebelled at losing their land to creditors
What instructions were delegates given for the Philaelphia Convention
meet with the sole and express purpose of revising the AOC
What major characteristics described the delegates?
economic and political elite/notables, college graduates/educated, coastal residents
questions founders agreed on
human nature (cynical view), cause of political conflict (unequal distribution of wealth, factions), object and nature of a republican govt (key role in checking and containing natural self-interest of people)
What did the delegates belive would happen if any faction was left unchecked and had too much power?
the faction would become tyrannical
New Jersey Plan
proposed by William Paterson of NJ, called for each state to be equally represented in the new Congress
The Virginia Plan
suggested by Edmun Randolph of Virginia, called for representation in Congress based on the state's share of the AMerican population
Roger Sherman and William Johnson of Conn, proposed adoption of a bicameral legislation, Senate--two members per state HOR--based on rep.
both representation and taxation were to be based upon the "number of free persons" plus three-fifths of the number of "all other persons."
advocates of the const. economic elite, more educated, city, wanted strong central government and weaker state govts. wanted indirect election of representatives and longer terms.
James Madison, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, wrote under name "Publius", added BOR in compromise with Anti-Federalists
opponents of the Const. economic middle/lower class, less educated, more rural residents, favored strong state govts, favored strong protections of individual rights, only wanted to revise AOC, wanted direct elections and shorter terms.
Thomas Jefferson, George Clinton, Patrick Henry
"Montezuma, Agrippa, Brutus, etc" feared the new const would erode fundamental liberties, new const was an enemy of freedom, and argued tht the new Const was a class-based document with the purpose of ensuring the economic elite would control public policies
ex post facto laws
cannot punish someone or increase punishment for acts that were not illegal or not as strict of a punishment at the time they were committed.
Madison's plan to prevent "tyranny of the majority"
1. place as much govtl control out of the hands of the masses (only the HOR was directly elected) 2. Checks and balances 3. separation of powers
Articles of Confederation
document that outlined the voluntary agreement between states and was adopted as the first plan for a permanent union
system of government based on the consent of the governed in which power is exercised by representatives of the public.
an amendment may be proposed either by a 2/3 vote in each house or chamber of Congress, or by a national convention
an amendment may be ratified either by the legislatures of 3/4 of states or by special state conventions called in 3/4 of states.
judicial interpretation, political practice, demands on policymakers, changes in technology
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments of the Const passed after ratification specifically protecting individual liberties
Equal Rights Amendment
first proposed in 1923, passed by Congress in 1972, not ratified by 3/4 of states; mandated equality of rights under the law regardless of gender
written by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison to convince others to support the new const.
groups of people, currently known as political parties or interest groups, who arise as a result of unequal distribution of wealth to seize the reigns of govt in their own intersest
write of habeas corpus
enables people who are detained by authorities to secure immediate inquiry and reasons why they have been detained
broad program grants given more or less automatically to sates and communities, which exercise discretion in how money is to be spent.
grants that can be used only for specific purposesor categories of state and local spending
where state and national government responsibilities are mingled and blurred like a marble cake; powers and policies are shared
transferring responsibility for policies from the federal govt to the state and local govt
where states and the natl govt each remain supreme within their own spheres of power, much like a layer cake
statement in the const which says that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out its duties
const requires each state to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or inprisonment
type of categorical grants where states and local govts do not apply for a grant but are given funds on the basis of a formula
full faith and credit
art 4 of the const requires states to provide reciprocity toward other states' public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings
Gibbons vs. Ogden
1824 SC case which further expanded Congress' power to regulate interstate and international commerce by defining commerce very broadly to incorporate every form of commercial activity
powers beyond Congress' enumerated power which ensure that it can carry out its duties
term used to describe the entire set of interactions among natl, state, and local govts
McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819 SC case, which established the supremacy of the natl govt over the states, included both enumerated and implied powrs of congress
privileges and immunities
const prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
art 4 of the Const prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states
specifies that powers not delegated to the natl govt are reserved for the state govt or the people
weak natl govt, most power is in the hands of its components (states or other like in the UN)
Four key events that largely shaped the issue of how natl and state powers are related
McCulloch v. Maryland--first brought issue of state vs. natl govt to court. Established idea of "implied powers" that Congress has and the "necessary and proper clause" ruling: national policies take precedence over state policies.
Gibbons v. Ogden--broadly defined commerce to encompass virtually every form of commercial activity.
Civil War--settled militarily what McCulloch enunciated constitutionally
civil rights movement--equality issues
Brown vs. BOE--school segregation unconstitutional
obligations states have towards each other
Full faith and credit
privileges and immunities
grants in aid
main instrument the national government uses for both aiding and influencing states and localities
some "strings" on categorical grants
nondiscrimination provisions, punitive cross-over sanctions and cross-cutting requirements that reduce or deny federal funds if certain state or local laws are not passed or if federal guidelines are not met
two types of categorical grants
project--awarded based on competitive application
formula--distributed according to a formula.
partly funded by national government, states have to budget more funds for the project in order to receive federal grant money.
require state and local governments to spend money to comply with laws with no financial help from the federal government
advantages of federalism for democracy
more opportunities for participation in government and politics
increased access to govt
increases opportunities for govt to be responsive to demands for policies
parties can rebuild strength and groom leaders at the state and local level
diversity of opinion can be reflected in different public policies among different states
reduces decision making conflict at the national level.
disadvantages of federalism for a democracy
quality of services like education is heavily depended on the state in which the service is provided; states differ greatly in available resources
diversity in policy can discourage states from providing services that would otherwise be available because poor people may be attracted from states with lower benefits
local interests impede natinoal majority support for certain functions
vast number of govts make it difficult for people to know which govt is govt for certain functions
federalism and scope of natl govt
as country went from ag--> industrial, new problems arose requiring govtal action (child labor laws, etc)
most problems or policies required authority and resources of the natl govt.
natl govt spends about 20% of the GDP
4 types of public policies
congressional statutes (laws) presidential actions, court decisions, budgetary choices, regulation
three contemporary theories of American democracy
groups compete with each other for control, no one group or set dominates.
multiple access points to govt with power spread among the various branches and levels of govt
bargaining and compromise are essential.
electoral majorities rarely rule
the recent increase in interest group activitiy is cited as evidence of pluarlism.
2. Elite and Class Theory
our society, like all socities is divided among class lines
upper class elite rules, regardless or govt organization
wealth is the basis of power
big business and its power is at the center of most elite and class theories
observers argue that elitism is increasing
pluralism gone sour
many groups so strong they are unable to act
too many groups with access to different levels and branches of govt.
policy gridlock, confusing and contradictory policies result from politicians trying to placate every group
Five elements of political culture that shape American Democracy
one of Jefferson's inalienable rights and a cornerstone of the BOR
equality of opportunity, especially social equality
developed in part from the western frontier and the immigrants' flight from govt oppression
American govt taxes and regulates less than most countries at its equivalent level of development
the common, ordinary citizens are idealized in American politics, and both liberals and conservatives claim to be their protectors.