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represent largest landmass empire
horse based = nomadic


strong and stout
sadels = mounted archers
more efficient in warfare
multi directional response

genghis khan

"world conquerer"
created alliances with tatars (tartars=hell)
unifies much of mongolian empire

what is gehghis kahn's real name


mongolian capital

surrounded by little mounds

secret history of the mongols

only nomadic source (poem)
origins of genghis kahn (wolf and deer)
he is fatherless

mongol society

women were important
story of how genghis treats men (respectful)
they did not care about ethnicity or religion

four dynasties


juvaini, history of the world conquerer

baghdad was conquered
not very critical of mongols
has to come up with rational as to why allah let this happen

Rashid al-Din, universal history

gives history that is less bias
more geneology

Qasida for Baghdad

takes 100 years for someone to criticize mongols

Letters from Genghis Kahn

some speculation that genghis was illiterate
mongols illiterate as well

john diplano carpini

mission to convert mongols
95% of text is about war, character, food, values, and then they will be saved
closest thing we have to a spy report

william of rubruck

writing for king of france
trying to offer intelligence of mongols

marco polo

less reliable than rebruck
very good at seducing you into believing him
does not talk about: great wall, chopsticks, foot-binding

why is marco polo's unreliability somewhat reliable

he worked in the salt trade and they were persian, which is the language of the mongols

orodic of pordenone

s. china sea
missionary who describes trade networks
not interested in big things, just his experience as a missionary

ibn battuta

traveled more than marco polo

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