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Personality Ch. 1
Terms in this set (22)
Often refers to someone's public image? (Reflects origin of word- Latin personae- about masks and stuff in plays)
What is personality?
There are many different theories and answers to the question throughout history in various cultural constructs
Why is the term personality difficult to define?
A set of abstract concepts developed about a group of facts or events in order to explain them
What is a theory?
Personality is simply an area of specialization in psychology. We learn about it through laboratory studies and academic research, as well as academic research. Other ways we learn are through psychoanalysis and clinical psychology.
What is the role of personality theory in psychology?
Theories may function as philosophy, science, and art. Scientists develop hypotheses that help us understand human behavior. Philosophers explore what it means to be a person. Artists seek to apply what is known about human behavior to make a better life.
Describe three orientations of personality theorists
Some personality theorists disagree about freedom versus determination, heredity versus environment, uniqueness versus universality, proactivity versus reactivity, and optimism versus pessimism.
Identify some of the basic philosophical issues on which personality theorists differ
Some believe that people basically have control over their behaviors and understand their motives. Others believe human behavior is determined by internal and external forces over which individuals have little or no control over
What is freedom versus determinism?
Theorists differ over whether inherited and inborn characteristics or factors in the environment have more of an important influence on human behavior
What is heredity versus environment?
Some theorists believe that each individual is unique and cannot be compared with others. Others contend that people are basically very similar
What is uniqueness versus universality?
Proactive theories view human beings as acting on their initiative rather than simply reacting. The sources of behavior are perceived as lying within the individual, who does more than just react to stimuli from the outside world
What is proactivity versus reactivity?
You're either hopeful or you're not idk
What is optimism versus pessimism?
Philosophical assumptions suggest that things are not necessarily what they appear to be. They are based on a special epiphanic vision, which goes beyond the ordinary perception of our sense organs. Philosophical statements tend to be global and do not allow for any exceptions. They are often implicit (not stated clearly) rather than explicit.
Explain how to recognize philosophical assumptions
Philosophical assumptions are evaluated by criteria appropriate to the special act of knowing that underlies them. The criteria are coherence, relevance, and comprehensiveness. They all add up to the final criterion, compellingness.
Explain how philosophical assumptions are evaluated
The ordinary observation on which science relies depends on a prior paradigm mat that is established philosophically. The values and standards of science also function as philosophical commitments.
Explain how science has its basis in philosophy
A model or concept of the world that is shared by the members of a community and that governs their activities.
What is a paradigm?
The simplest kinds of scientific statements are EMPIRICAL, based directly on observation. The data on which these statements are based may be OBJECTIVE or SUBJECTIVE. When a number of different observations coincide, a scientist may make a GENERALIZATION. Scientists also use OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS, which specify the behaviors included in a term, and SCIENTIFIC CONSTRUCTS, which use imaginary or hypothetical concepts to explain what we observe.
Explain the characteristics of scientific statements
Scientists use a variety of techniques to evaluate their work. All of these techniques are ultimately verifiable - that is, based on observation, the ordinary perceptions of our sense organs - although some statements can be tested only indirectly. Scientific statements must be open to falsification; a scientist must indicate the conditions under which a statement might be proven false. Scientists do not claim that the information produced by their methods is ultimately true. Scientific statements should be judged for their USEFULNESS rather than their truth.
Explain how scientific statements are evaluated
When scientists end up with more than one hypothesis, the criteria they use to decide between rival hypotheses are COMPATIBILITY, PREDICTIVE POWER, and SIMPLICITY
Explain how scientists decide between rival hypotheses
Psychometric- Tests that measure personality characteristics by means of carefully designed questionnaires developed with theoretical and statistical techniques. (Ex. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory [MMPI])
Projective- Tests of deliberately ambiguous stimuli (Ex. Rorshach Inkblot test)
Describe two techniques used to assess personality
Clinical- The clinician conducts research through intensive interviews and observation of the participant. Clinical methods of research may also include the analysis of dreams and/or early memories.
Psychometric- The use of mathematical and statistical tools to measure personality
Experimental- Permits scientists to infer a cause-and-effect relationship between two factors.
Explain three approaches used in research on personality
The three major goals of psychotherapy are the SCHOLARLY, ETHICAL, and CURATIVE motives. Scholarly therapies should be evaluated on their basis of their contribution to the understanding of the climate they create for fostering change and life improvement. Curative therapies should be evaluated on the basis of symptom remission and number of cures
Identify three goals of psychotherapy, and indicate the criteria of evaluation suitable for each goal
It is important to distinguish among the different orientations of personality theories so that we can recognize each viewpoint and use appropriate methods to evaluate each theory
Explain why it is important to distinguish among the different orientations of personality theories
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