Classical Film Theory
Terms in this set (91)
A theory of universals: universals only exist in things, never apart from things; a universal is identical in each of its instances
Pre-soviet method of acting (19th century) that uses the body like a machine, in which parts all work together, yet each can be expressive; close-ups often used
Type of thought that thinks that artistic activity was considered primarily a process of "making" or "building."
Purification or purgation of emotions -- especially pity and fear -- through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration (originally used by Aristotle to describe the effects of tragedy on the spectator)
Refers to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects that were considered to be ideal forms as abstractions that are not spatial, temporal or mental; denies the reality of the material wrold
The theory of literary forms and literary discourse; may refer specifically to the theory of poetry, although some also use it broadly enough to denote the concept of "theory" itself.
A change of the form or nature of a thing or person into a completely different one, by natural or supernatural means
Shots joined together just as bricks are joined; it is an additive process of building (Pudovkin)
Maximum conflict should be maintained through editing (Eisenstein)
A supposition or system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.
Ut Pictura Poesis
As goes the visual arts, so go the literary arts (means that it is useless to make qualitative judgments among them since they are all "of the same cloth.")
A low-bow style of mass-produced art or design using popular or cultural icons; generally includes unsubstantial or gaudy works or decoration, or works that are calculated to have popular appeal (Walter Benjamin)
A combination of Kino-seeing (I see through the camera) Kino-writing (I write on the film of the camera) and Kino organization (I edit); conquest of space, the visual linkage of people throughout the entire world based on the continuous exchange of visible fact.
Theory by Arnheim; each of the representative arts is based on this or reality, which defines the rules of the game for that art. Film is given a middle position between the photo and the theatre, thus, the natural and the degree of this depends on the material and technical conditions of the representation.
Sexual pleasure derived chiefly from watching others when they are named or engaged in sexual activity; voyeurism
Italian artist who sculpted Apollo and Daphne, David and The Rape of Proserpina
Italian artist who used dramatic lighting and influenced Baroque painting
French artist known for his use of color who helped define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century; painted Vase of Sunflowers, Landscape at Collioure
Italian painter during the High Renaissance who is admired for his clarity of form and ease of composition; religious painter, including The School of Athens
Architecture in Motion
Photoplay of Splendor; implies landscape gardening, mural painting, church building and furniture making. Split into Crowd Splendor, Patriotic Splendor, Religious Splendor and Fairy Splendor.
Includes trick films and crowd films, example: "From the Manger to the Cross"
Sculpture in Motion
On a stage, people are too far away, not appealing to our plastic sense. In film, people can be inflated into giants possessing a high sculptural relief (while at the same time, the speed of the film must not destroy the chance for our enjoyment of the modeling.)
Includes Pictures of Actions, "The Chase Film (or "Hurdle Race"), Actors as "swiftly moved chessmen,"
Painting in Motion
Includes Pictures of Intimacy; great drama does not depend on the oversized and the crowded gossip in extremis; "The Sunbeam"
Fairy splendor is also referred to as this; it is a quality, not a defect, of all photoplays that humans tend to become dolls and mechanisms, and dolls and mechanisms tend to become human
Gossip in Extremis
The relaxed and restrained moods of human creatures. Here are our idiosyncrasies, our irrelevant gestures
Swiftly Moved Chessmen
Film allows no adequate means for the development of any fully developed personal passions; these people chase after or race for some object or goal (film type)
1912, D.W. Griffith; example of Painting in Motion
The Thief of Baghdad
1923-1924, Douglas Fairbanks, where the sets become the characters; example of Architecture in Motion
From the Manger to the Cross
1911, example of the Photoplay of Splendor and Architecture in motion
Part of the Soviet montage theory where the editing follows a specific number of frames (based purely on the physical nature of time), cutting to the next shot no matter what is happening within the image; montage is used to elicit the most basal and emotional reactions from the audience, e.g., October
1987, Gabriel Axel; two Danish sisters lead a rigid life centered around their father, the local minister and the church.
By the Law
"Po Zakonu," 1926, Lev Kuleshov; five-person team of gold prospectors in the Yukon enjoy success until a member snaps and kills two others
1941, Orson Welles; following the death of a publishing tycoon, news reporters scramble to discover the meaning of his final utterance
City of Gold
2014, Przemyslaw Reut
1962, Arthur Dreifuss; story of how Thomas Crimmins serves as a wrder and is torn between his duty and his humanity
2008, Matt Reeves; revolves around a monster attack in New York as told from the POV of a small group of people
End of St. Petersburg
1927, Vsevelod Pudovkin; made to commemorate the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917
How Green was my Valley
1914, John Ford; as the turn of the century in a Welsh mining village, the Morgans raise coal-mining sons and hope their youngest will find a better life
1959, Robert Bresson; Michel is released from jail after serving a sentence for thievery. His mother dies and he resorts to pickpocketing as a means of survival
1925, Sergei M. Eisenstein; a dramatized account of a great Russian naval mutiny and a resulting street demonstration which brought on a police massacre
1976, Martin Scorsese; a mentally unstable Vietnam war veteran works as a night-time taxi driver in New York City where he tries to save a preadolescence prostitute
Painting; creates a living form; space exists apart from its surroundings. It is the sole object of perception, as a shape in space and a shaping of space. It is cut off by the frame. It does not have what the viewer in real life has to complete his fragmentary experience.
Architecture; here the mode of virtual space is "ethnic domain"; it's created illusion is a virtual space
A living space that encompasses the rhythms of living, a "physically present human environment that expresses the characteristics rhythmic functional patterns which constitute a culture."
The Poet and the Writer create this, in the sense of how organisms encounter and cope with events. Unlike real life, these values are immediately apparent: the poet and the writer abstracts from his life for the purpose of clarifying, shaping and coping (the stream of life that slips by us every day does not usually permit such revelations)
Semblance or illusion of music is of course an aural one, creating this. Music makes time audible and its form and continuity sensible. Time is abstracted from actuality and becomes for the listener an enitrely flexible, perceptible thing.
The mode of the film is this mode because of the immediacy of its impact upon the viewer, creating for that viewer a sense of a virtual present; the implication of time as passage in film's created image and in the perception of that image is still very pertinent
French term meaning to "put in place." As opposed to the concept of montage, it does not concern itself with the way pieces of film are juxtaposed, but rather with the elements within the shot itself
How the frame is composed, what kind of depth of field it has, the nature of the action and movement contained therein, camera movement and position
Its existence not its being on view. Mechanical reproduction emancipated the work of art from its dependence on ritual and place. Works of art became designed for reproducibility. Their importance lay in their exhibition.
Withers in the age of mechanical reproduction. Technique of reproduction detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition.
Actor in Exile
The performance of the actor is not subjected to a series of optical tests. The audience does not identify with the actor, but the camera, thus the actor is robbed of his own aura and he is exiled from the stage and from himself.
The spectator must have the freedom to choose his own interpretation of the object or event.
Traditionally elevated its percipient and depended upon the personality and passion of its creator; doesn't cater to its audience, often asking the audience to rise to its standards
Licking the Book
A Hollywood maxim that to make a movie from a book, you first have to remove the book's idiosyncratic and personalized elements
The Built-In Reaction
Mass products do the feelings for the spectator (e.g., High Culture is predigested for us).
Has all the elements of Masscult but with the additional veneer of pseudo respectibility; it pretends to respect the standards of High Culture while in fact watering them down and vulgarizing them; able to pass itself off as the real thing, despite being totally subjected to the spectator
Totally subjected to the spectator; all effort towards reader expectations, rather than the expression of an individual artist; is very democratic; refuses to discriminate against or between anything or anybody; worst extreme of mass production is exploited here
Comes from below, shaped by the people for their own needs; not truly art, but what the other mediums (Masscult, Midcult and High Culture) draws from
Created "David," a Baroque sculpture implying motion and duration of time
Modernist painter who emphasized the 2-dimensionality of the picture space
Modernist graphic designer whose optical illusions played with the polarities of volume duality
Sculpture; one of this, not scene; is more than the area which the figure actually occupies. It establishes a "sort of continuity with the emptiness around it...making it a continuation of that figure."
Necessary condition of this is virtual space (includes painting, sculpture and architecture); the purpose is to articulate visual form and present it as the sole object of perception -- as a shape in space and a shaping of space.
Time taken by an action as it is being filmed and as it is being projected onto the screen
The subjective, emotional impression of duration which the spectator experiences when watching the film (Langer)
Compression of the actual time taken by the events depicted
Affinities of Photography
The Unstaged; the Fortuitous; Endlessness, the Indeterminate and the Flow of Life (Kracauer)
Myth of Total Reality
Bazin; Cinema is an asymptote of reality, moving ever closer to it, forever dependent on it (objectivity axiom)
Eisenstein; famous for him comparing people to animals
Man with a Movie Camera
The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction; Cultural Historian who committed suicide during his attempt to flee Nazi Germany (which theorist)
The Myth of Total Cinema; mentor to the New Wave theorist; Founded and edited "Cashiers du Cinema" and "What is Cinema" (which theorist)
The redemption of Physical Reality; refugee from Germany who came to write and teach in America (which theorist)
Decoupage Classique; the transcendental style (which theorist)
Masscult and Midcult (which theorist)
Sought to define principles of perception -- seemingly innate mental laws that determined the way objects were perceived; based on the here and now, and in the way things are seen.
Munsterberg; Attention, memory, imagination, suggestion, division of interest and emotion; in every one of these aspects, the photoplay succeeds in doing what the drama of the theatre does not attempt
The camera can pull back to take in panoramas and masses of people.
Film can arouse patriotic feelings by means of its accessibility to the masses. Films can also penetrate the nation's extremities, into the haunts of the "wildest or the dullest."
Films appeal not to strict orthodoxies but to the "non-sectarian prayers of the broad human race."
The process of decomposing reality into usable blocks or units, e.g., no color had a given meaning, but achieves its meaning from its interrelation with other particles.
Comprising three dialectal stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction; an antithesis, contradicts and negates the thesis; and the tension between the two being resolved by the synthesis.
Part of the Soviet montage theory in which uses shots that, combined, elicit an intellectual meaning (e.g., Apocalypse Now ending where the murder of Colonel Kurtz is juxtaposed with the killing of the bull; October or Strike by Eisenstein)
Like literature and poetry, this creates an illusion of life by presenting life more immediately as events and actions spring towards a future (moves towards an impending future/destiny); both a present and a future are now occurring
Virtual space is created that "comes and goes," unlike the fixed space of the stage; despite the fact that the borders of the movie screen are fixed, the created space within it is continually changing its configurations (occurs through the movie camera, the succession of shots ((montage)), the changes in camera angle and distance).
Actuality in life or its illusion on film; this is what is valuable; one of the affinities of photography
Haphazard contingencies; the street, the accidental); one of the affinities of photography
the frame (boundary), only a "provisional limit"; the frame's content refers to other contents outside the frame; frames are only provisional; frame lines cannot contain subjects; one of the affinities of photography
Each picture surrounded with a fringe "of indistinct multiple meanings," unshaped nature or nature in its inscrutability; one of the affinities of photography
The Flow of Life
unique to cinema, the duration of time and the influx of material situations and happpenings; due to the influx of psychological correspondences aroused, films can suggest a reality that can be called "life"; simply a stream of material situations and happenings and all that they imitate in terms of emotions, values and thoughts; the affinities of photography