Terms in this set (141)
Describe the way that a mosquito interacts with its environment
it feeds on other organisms (eats) it passes it genes(mates) then it dies
Give an example of a small ecosystem and a large ecosystem
small= is a pond
Describe the ecological system hierarchy for an Elk
individual= one elk
population= many elk
community= elk, cougar, moose other animals
ecosystem= elk eating grass
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data
• Quantitative - anything that can be expressed by a number
• Qualitative - data that cannot be expressed by a number.
What is a model
are abstract, simplified representations of real systems
What is the relationship between hypothesis and a model?
hypotheses are models, however the term model is reserved for circumstances in which the hypothesis has some limited support through observations.
example: the hypothesis relating grass production to nitrogen availability is a model
Why are units so important?
you need proper units to read the data
Describe the difference between shortwave and longwave radiation, specifically discussing the sources and functions of each.
• Shortwave Radiation - given off by hotter objects (sun) provide light for photosynthesis
• Longwave Radiation - given
off by cooler objects (earth)
Warms air which expands goes up. Cools down and creates rain
What are the four levels of the atmosphere in order
highest to lowest
What is the dry and wet adiabatic lapse rate and why does the moisture of the air affect how the temperature of the air changes with elevation?
Adiabatic lapse rate - rate of temperature
change with elevation.
• Dry adiabatic lapse rate - ~10 C per 1000 m of
elevation (5.5 F per 1000 ft)
• Wet adiabatic lapse rate - ~5.5 C per 1000 m of
elevation (3 F per 1000 ft)
What direction do the air masses move in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere? What is the name of the effect?
• Northern hemisphere - west to east
• Southern hemisphere - east to west
•Coriolis effect - the pattern of
Why is there generally low pressure at the equator and high pressure in the subtropical region? What are these areas called?
air heated in the equatorial zone rises upward creating a low-pressure zone near surface called equatorial low
the descending air forms a semipermanent high-pressure belt at the surface and encircling the earth called a subtropical high
What three things effect ocean currents
How might the relative humidity of a parcel of air change as it moves up the side of a mountain? Why
as the parcel rises it cools as it is cooled the relative humidity increases. when the relative humidity hits 100% water vapor condenses and forms clouds. as soon as the particles of water and ice become to heavy to be suspended perception falls
How does topography influence local and regional patterns of precipitation
as an air mass reaches a mountain it ascends , cools, becomes saturated with water vapor, and releases much of its moister at upper altitudes of windward side. the leeward side remains dry this is called a rain shadow
What are some examples of microclimates and why are they important?
microclimates define the conditions where an organisms lives.
examples: ant hill, tree trunks, sand dunes, cave, meadow
Determine a species success
List and describe the 5 things that hydrogen bonding leads to in water
• High specific heat (slow to warm up or cool down)
• High latent heat (slow to evaporate)
• High viscosity ("syrupy", flows slowly)
• High surface tension (supports weight)
• Strong attraction to charged surfaces and
particles (held to soil)
List and describe the 3 things that influence the amount of light in aquatic ecosystems.
• Surface- Reflected dependent on the angle
•Particles- Intersect and absorb or scatter
•Water - absorbs certain wavelengths
Longer wavelengths absorb quickly,
shorter penetrate deeper
Explain why seasonal stratification of temperature and oxygen takes place in deep ponds and lakes
the amount of O2 water can hold depends on the temp, pressure, and salinity.
oxygen absorbed by surface water mixes with deeper water with turbulence.
in the summer oxygen becomes stratified, decreasing with depth because of decomposition in bottom sediments.
in the fall and spring turnover, oxygen becomes replenished in deep water.
Explain the forces behind the way the ocean currents move
(a) along the equator the Coriolis effect acts to pull the westward flowing currents to the north and south resulting in up welling of deeper cold water to surface
(b)along the weastern margins the coriolis effect causes the surface waters to move off shore
What causes the tides
tides result of gravitational pull of the moon and sun
Describe the influence of LAI
• Water interception
• Radiation extinction
• Water and carbon gas exchange
In short it is a key component of
biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems
Name and describe the 5 independent factors that are important in soil formation
•Parent material -material in which soil develops
•Climate- effect soil indirectly and directly
indirect= climate influences a regions plant and animal life
directly= temperature, wind, and precipitation influence chemical and physical weathering
•Biotic factors- plants, animals, bacteria, fungi
• Topography-the contour of the land can effect how climate influences the weathering process
• Time - is crucial for soil formation all factors above assert themselves with time
2,000 to 20,000 years
What are the 5 main soil forming processes that give rise to the different classification of soils
• Lateralization - heavy leaching from rain,
high iron, aluminum and acid.
•Calcification - evaporation and water
uptake exceed precipitation. Deposits in B
• Salinization - deposits on surface
•Podzolization - conifers create acidic
conditions and distinct A horizon.
•Gleization - high moisture, build up of
What is the relationship between an individual's genotype and phenotype?
•genotype is a combination of alleles
• Phenotype: physical expression of a
why is there often a range of phenotypic variation rather than just a couple phenotypes?
if you favor one phenotype over another the process of natural selection acts on one phenotype.
for natural selection to take place there has to be variation among individuals in a population
Why are small population more prone to variations in allele frequency from generation to generation than are large populations?
small population are more subject to genetic drift or the change in allele frequency due to random chance such as mating
Contrast the mechanisms through which individuals vs. populations respond to environmental variation.
2. Phenotypic plasticity-
Adaptation and natural selection
What is phenotypic plasticity?
the ability of a genotype to give rise to a different phenotypic expression under different environmental conditions
example: plants!! the size, ratio of reproductive tissues and vegetative tissues, and shape of leaves may vary widely at different levels of nutrition.
List the processes other than natural selection that can alter allele frequencies of the gene pool.
What are the three types of natural selection?
direction selection- phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time
stabilizing selection-favors the middle phenotype, causing the decline in variation in a population over time.
disruptive selection-favors both extreme phenotypes, different from one extreme in directional selection.
What types of genetic differentiation can be caused by environmental variation, gradients, or geographic barriers?
What is photorespiration and why is it so important to the efficiency of the plant?
Process that consumes O2 (oxygen) and releases CO2(carbon dioxide)
under conditions of water stress, oxygen inhibits the Calvin cycle, the carbon fixation portion of photosynthesis.
What are the two ways that carbon leaves the plant?
Why doesn't photosynthesis keep increasing with light
Photosynthetic rates decline as light levels exceed saturation. It reached it's light saturation point
Compare and contrast sun vs. shade leaves
Shade=plants larger and thinner leaves produce less rubisco and more chlorophyll
Sun= are smaller thicker
How does a boundary layer work? Use examples
Is a layer of still air or water adjacent to the surface of each leaf.
The environment of the boundary layer differs from that of the surrounding environment.
As water is transpired from stomata, the humidity of air within boundary layer increases, reducing further transpiration
Describe the advantages and disadvantages for C3, C4, and CAM plants and names some examples for each.
C3 advantage:low energy
Disadvantage: high water loss and nitrogen demand
Examples: trees wheat
C4: advantages: low water loss low nitrogen demand
Disadvantage: requires more energy
Example: many grasses and corn
CAM: advantages: low water loss. Low N demand
Disadvantage: requires more energy limited by Co2
Examples pineapple and agave
Compare and contrast acclimation and adaptation
Acclimation-Short-term, non permanent adjustment in physiology and morphology in order to adjust changes in the individuals environment.
Adaptation-Long-term permanent adjustment of the physiology and morphology out of necessity for
What are an organisms options when there are changes to their environment?
How does the availability of water to a plant constrain the rate of photosynthesis?
Water stress closes stomata, reduces photosynthesis
What are the factors that determine water potential
water potential due to pressure
positive pressure open stomata negative closed stomata
potential - water potential
due to solute concentration
Matric potential - tendency of water
to adhere to surfaces
How do plants respond to changes to light, give some examples
the amount of light that reach a plant influence photosynthesis.
How do plants respond to changes to water, give some examples
Plant does not have enough water stomata will close and not have enough Co2
How do plants respond to changes to temperature, give some examples
Higher the temp the more photosynthesis
How do plants respond to changes to nutrients, give some examples
In prefer to properly a plant needs nutrients. If there is less nutrients the plant will yield less. Too many nutrients can kill a plant
Name and describe the four feeding groups
herbivores- eat plants
carnivores- eat meat
omnivores-eat both plant and meat
detritivores- animals that feed on dead plant and animal material
Discuss the difference between the digestion tracts of Herbivores and Carnivores
Herbivores- digest cellulose with the help bacteria and protozoans in for-gut
carnivores- have shot intestines and simple stomachs
How do poikilotherms and homeotherms regulate their body temperatures
poikilotherms- cold blooded ectothermy (heat outside) body temp
homeotherms- warm blooded endothermy (heat from inside)
Describe the energy and size trade-offs between endotherms and ectotherms.
high energy cost in metabolism in endotherms
low energy cost in metabolisim in ectotherms
What 3 things limit the spatial extent of a population
• Environmental conditions
• Geographic barriers that restrict
colonization in otherwise suitable
• Competition and predation
Name and describe the three techniques used to estimate population size. Give an example of each.
Quadrats-For immobile organisms
Counting organisms in a subsample
Capture-recapture- catch animal, mark animal, catch again
Signs of presence- poop, calls, nest
What do we need to know about a population to estimate the growth rate
• N = initial population size
• t = time
• b = births per unit of time
• d = deaths per unit of time
• ∆t = change in time
• r = instantaneous rate of growth (b-d)
Compare and contrast crude birth rate and age specific birthrate
• Crude Birthrate = Births per 1000 population per unit of time
Ex 25 births per year/100 animals * 1000 = 250
•Age-specific birthrate = number of births per female at a certain age
How do the gross reproductive rates and net reproductive rates differ
Gross= the sum of the mean number of females born to each female group
Net= average number of female offspring produced by an average female during her life time
What environmental factors might result in random yearly variations in the rates of survival and birth within a population
Describe the Allee effect and discuss the impacts of having a small population size
Allee effect: decline in reproduction or survival with low population density
Small populations are more vulnerable to stochasticity
- environmental stochasticity
- demographic stochasticity
• Hard to find a mates
• Chemical signals will not be intercepted (insects)
• Pollination is unlikely (plants)
• Loss of social structures helpful in defense, foraging.
• Less genetic variation
Define and compare lamda and r
you can think of lambda as the multiplication factor
r describes exponential growth or the rate of increase
The maximum value of r is the intrinsic rate of
=the per capita rate of growth of a population that has
reached a stable age distribution and is free of
competition and other growth restraints
formulas for lambda
Eight pheasants are released on an islandA year later, there are 14, including the young.
The population increased by (14/8) = 1.75 times
(lambda) = 1.75
you find r by taking the natural log of lambda
so the ( natural log) ln x 1.75 = 0.56
What are the mechanisms of density-dependent population regulation?
•Patterns of predation
•Spread of disease of parasites
What are the effects of density on reproduction in Rhinos in South Africa? and why?
the more dense the population the less the rhinos are able to reproduce.
lowers recruitment rate,
increases age of reproduction
body condition decline
What are the density effects on Spatial Patterns in Rhinos in South Africa? and why?
females use smaller home range,
overlap in female range did not differ
male defined larger territory but did not spatially exclude non territorial adult males
Describe the habitats that contribute to the formation of r and K selected species.
r selected unstable environment density independent
K- stable environment, density dependent interactions
Compare the organism size, energy used to make each infividual, # of offspring, timing of maturation, life expectancy, lifetime reproductive events and survivorship curve of r selected species.
energy used= low
# offspring= many
Time of maturation= early
life expectancy= short
reproductive event= one
survivor ship curve= III
K selected species organism size, energy used to make each infividual, # of offspring, timing of maturation, life expectancy, lifetime reproductive events and survivorship curve
energy used= high
# offspring= few
Time of maturation= late (parental care)
life expectancy= long
reproductive event= more than one
survivor ship curve= I or II
Be able to list and discuss the life history tradeoffs
• How big a price (time, energy, resources) to mate?
• How often to breed/flower?
• Large or small clutches/litters/seed crops?
• How much care for newborns vs. self?
• A few large offspring or many small ones?
• Grow and develop quickly or slowly?
• Begin to reproduce early or late in life?
• Live long or live fast?
What are the 4 necessary conditions for the term metapopulations to be applicable to a system?
2)Risk of local extinction
3)Patches close enough to recolonize
4)Local populations do not behave synchronously
For each of the types of interactions, indicate the response as shown in figure 13.1. Describe an example of the interaction.
(species A / species B)
How do species interactions function as agents of natural selection
• Co-evolution: Two species undergo reciprocal change through natural
• Mutually beneficial interactions (+/+): encourages convergence in
phenotypic changes, stronger interactions.
• Mutually detrimental interactions (-/-): encourages divergence in
phenotypes, weaker interaction.
Name and define the 6 types of interspecific competition
1. Consumption- One species inhibits another by consuming a shared resource
2. Preemtion- among sessile animals where one animals presents precludes occupation by others.
3. Overgrowth-one organism grows over another and inhibits access to an essential resource
4.Chemical- chemical growth inhibitors or toxins released by an individual negatively
affect other species (allelopathy in
5.Territorial -The behavioral exclusion of others from a defended territory
6.Encounter-Results during non-territorial meetings (scavengers fighting over carcass)
Describe the difference between a fundamental and realized niche using examples
fundamental niche- is the whole range a species could occupy
realized niche- is what the species ends up occupying due to competition
example: take a tree as a habitat. species A can live in the whole tree with no problems. However, a new species species B,moves in to the tree. species B can only live in the tops of trees. so to avoid competition species A will move to the bottom half of the tree. this is species A realized niche. animals avoid competition at all cost
What are the four outcomes of interspecific competition
1. Species 1 wins
2. Species 2 wins
3. Move apart
Describe the competitive exclusion model and what the options of a species are when they have to coexist with other species that use the same consumable resources.
competitive exclusion principle states " complete competitors cannot coexist"
if species A increases the least bit faster than species B than A will out compete B and B will become extinct
Name and describe the two categories of resources
- Consumable: limited quantity, compete to get them before they go away. Food, light, water etc.
- Non consumable: Environmental factors
such as temperature, soil/water pH, relative humidity, and salinity directly influence plant growth and reproduction. Species do not compete for these
In both predation and parasitism, one organism (species) consumes another organism. How do these two processes differ?
in predation the species eats and consumes the entire species
in parasitism the species feeds off another species rarely killing it
List three ways that parasites are transferred. Name an example of each.
Direct transfer-Direct transfer - ex. Smallpox, roundworms (yet another reason not to eat poop), lice, ticks,
Intermediate vector- lyme disease carried
by ticks, malaria carried by mosquitos,
dutch elm disease carried by bark beetles
Multiple host stages- Multiple host stages - meningeal worm between deer and snail, blister rust between whitebark pine and ribes
• Definitive host - parasite
becomes an adult
• Intermediate host - harbor
some developmental phase
What are three ways to respond to a parasite to prevent its establishment?
Inflammation - histamine response
Enclose or isolate
trichinosis - encased roundworms in
• Antibodies target the invader (antigen)
Be able to classify the following list of species interactions into their interaction type (nonsymbiotic mutualism, symbiotic mutualism, predator + prey, direct transfer parasite +host, intermediate vector parasite +host, multiple host stages parasite +host, interspecific competitors, intraspe
White bark pine and blister rust
Ticks and dogs
Malaria and humans
Squawroot and oak trees
Dutch elm disease and elm trees
Lymn disease and humans
Smallpox and humans
Lichen and moss
Corals and zooanthellae
Oxpecker and gazelle
Moose and wolf
Based on discussion during this and other lectures, discuss the purpose and limitations of models. In general how are models made, how are they used, and what are their limitations?
What impact did wolf introduction have on the age structure and reproduction of female elk?
High wolf predation on older, menopausal
cows shifted age structure of females to
younger more fecund females.
It has been found that the killing efficiency of lynx for snowshoe hares is 0.007 (kills per predator per prey per year). In a certain mountain region there are estimated to be 11 lynx and 1500 hares. What is the number of prey killed per year? (see the predation lecture)
take 0.007 x 11 x 1500 =115.5
Describe each of the following defenses; name and explain with an example how the defense is used by an organism.
Distinguish between permanent and induced predator defenses. Provide an example of each in both plants and animals.
- Permanent (Constitutive) defenses are fixed features of the organism (such as coloration)
- Induced defenses are those brought about by the action of predators (such as pheromones)
Compare and contrast quantitative inhibitors and qualitative inhibitors in plants, give some examples.
quantitative= secondary compounds produced by the plant in large quantities
example: tannin, and resins
tannin bind to proteins and make digestion hard for herbivores
qualitative: secondary compounds produced in small minute quintets these compounds are toxic herbivores avoid consumption
examples: caffeine, nicotine and cyanide
Distinguish between a dominant and keystone species?
A dominant species is typically a species that outcompetes other species (at the expense of others). Example: a dominate plant species. A keystone species is a species that keeps other species in an ecosystem in check, and the ecosystem in balance (for the expense of others). Example: a predator that keeps herbivores under control due to dominate plant species otter and kelp forest.
What does high species richness look like on a rank abundance diagram? What does high species evenness look like on a rank abundance diagram?
Relative abundance (pi) - how common or rare a species is relative to the other species in a given location or community
Species Evenness - relative abundance of species
More gradual the slope = greater species evenness
Greater length of the curve = greater species richness
Name and define the four trophic levels of the food web as described in the lecture
: • Primary producers (Basal species) - feed on no other species but are fed upon by others
• Primary consumers (intermediate species) -usually herbivores, feeding on primary producers. Are preyed upon
• Secondary consumers (intermediate species) -usually omnivores or carnivores. Are preyed upon
• Tertiary consumers (top predator) - can feed on any level of the food chain but are not preyed upon
Be able to match the following terms for the layers in bodies of water to their definitions: epilimnion, metalimnion, thermocline, hypolimnion, photic zone, aphotic zone, benthic zone.
epilimnion is the top-most layer in a thermally stratified lake. metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The hypolimnion is the dense, bottom layer of water in a thermally-stratified lake. It is the layer that lies below the thermocline. Thermocline- depth at which the rate of decrease of temperature with the increase of depth is the largest photic zone sunlight zone is the depth of the water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis. aphotic zone is the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight. Benthic zone: is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers
Discuss the difference between top-down and bottom-up control in a food web
• Bottom-up control: Food web structure is controlled by the abundance of populations in the trophic level below..
• Few plants Few insects Few Birds
• Top-down control: predator populations control prey abundance, and the prey of the prey, and so on
• Bass eat minnows and minnows eat algae.• No bass no algae
Describe the concepts behind diffuse and indirect interactions and how these concepts can influence community structure.
Indirect: When one species does not interact with a second species directly, but instead influences a third species that does directly interact with the second ex: : Lynx indirectly affects spruce• Lynx eats hare eats spruce
The structure and function of communities (and ultimately the structure and function of ecosystems) depends on a complex array of interactions tying all members of the community into an intricate web.
How does the abundance of nutrients in a community influence vegetation and animal life? Discuss tolerance, competition, and diversity.
increased availability of nutrients can support higher rates of photosynthesis, plant growth, and higher density of plants per unit area. Reducing growth rates, low nutrients, reduces competitive displacement. Allowing more tolerant species below ground or (symmetrical competition) to flourish when more nutrients are available it switches from belowground to above ground (asymmetrical). The net result is an increase in in competitive displacement and a reduction in plant species diversity as the faster growing, taller plants consume the light source. Sum up more tolerant plants competitive displacement blow ground in low nutrients. Less tolerant plant more competition for light above ground which leads to less diversity.
What is the difference between zonation and succession?
Succession refers to the change in a community of organisms in a habitat over TIME.
EX: sand is being thrown up on a shore by the sea it will gradually change (over about 200 years) from sand, to grassy sand dunes, to shrubs, to woodland.
Zonation: refers to the appearance of distinct zones or regions in a habitat at one time, where different communities of organisms live - due to the different CONDITIONS in those zones. EX: seashore, where the seaweeds, snails, etc at the bottom of the shore are very different from those at the top. This zonation is due to the way in which the tides bring water up and down the shore twice a day.
What are the differences between primary and secondary succession
Primary succession is the colonization of living organisms into an area that was not previously colonized by any living things. An example of this would be succession after a glacier recedes
Secondary succession is the regeneration of the living community after a major disturbance EX: forest is clear-cut the trees are removed but some small plants, the soil, and soil organisms remain. The forest will slowly regenerate
How do autogenic and allogeneic change differ and why is there a gradient between them?
autogenic- change are direct result of the activities of organisms in the community or (endogenous) EX: change in light environment due to interception and reflection of solar radiation of trees less light farther down canopy
Allogeneic: change in environment conditions independent of organisms or (exogenous) change in physical environment. EX: fluctuation in temperature and precipitation
How does disturbance regime lead to a landscape mosaic
disturbances large or small alter the biological and physical structures of communities making up the landscape giving away the process of succession.
example take a forest landscape fire comes and goes in different parts of the forest. the forest landscape is a mosaic of patches at varies stages of succession.
each patch of forest is constantly changing however, the characteristics stay relatively constant.
What is retrogression
slowing down/reversing succession) the process of returning to an earlier state, typically a worse one
example over browsing and grazing
What is an ephemeral ecosystem
an ecosystem that is available for a short time EX: a puddle or a wetland in spring
How does species diversity change over the course of succession
species diversity increases during the initial stage of succession as the site is colonized by new species. Early species a displaced by later arrivals species diversity declines. Peaks in diversity tend to occur during succession stages that correspond with transition period. After the arrival of later succession species but before the decline of early ones. Patterns of succession are influenced by resource availability and disturbance.
What three things influence the edge effect? How is diversity affected by these factors?
influence by length and width as well as the contract between adjoining plant communities
transition zones between patches have a high species richness because they support selected species of adjoining communities as well as opportunistic species adapted to edges. this is called edge effect
How does the ratio of the proportion of edge to interior habitat change with increasing patch size?
all habitat patches are surrounded by an edge, assuming that depth of edge remains constant the ratio of edge to interior decreases as habitat size increases. when the patch gets large enough an interior develops.
in general as size increases, interior increases, edge decreases. long woodland areas who depth do not exceed the edge are are edge communities.
What is a disturbance regime? What factors go into describing a disturbance regime?
is a concept that describes the pattern of disturbances that shape an ecosystem over a long time scale. disturbance regime is distinguished from a single disturbance event because it describes a scale of disturbance pattern, a frequency and intensity of disturbances, and a resulting ecological pattern over space and time.
Decomposition: the breakdown of organic matter.
- Key process in the recycling of nutrients.
- Releases energy, CO2
, and nutrients.
Decomposers are organisms that feed on dead organic matter
Bacteria and fungi are the primary decomposers of organic matter
Microbivores feed on bacteria and fungi
- includes protozoans, springtails, and mites
List and describe the factors that influence the rate of decomposition
•What is being decomposed:
•Plant litter quality
•Where it is being decomposed:
•Climate (temperature and
•Soil properties (texture and pH)
•Litter quality affects:
• Energy gained by
• Composition of the decomposer
In what order are lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose broken down by decomposers in and why?
glucose and simple sugars are mostly carbon and easy to break down
cellulose and hemicellulose have more complex in structure and more difficult to break down
lignin represents a class of compounds. these compounds have very large three dimensional molecules which take a long time to break down
microbial decomposers use carbon compounds contained in dead organic material as a source of energy. various carbon compounds differ in their quality as an energy source for decomposes.
What does it mean to convert something from an organic to an inorganic compound? What is this process called?
Describe the process of mineralization and immobilization, refer specifically to the C:N ratio of original plant litter, the C:N ratio needed by microorganisms and how that C:N ratio is achieved in order to begin decomposition.
the C:N ration in plant biomass is useally 50:1 and 100:1
where as the C:N ration for bacteria is is 10:1 or 15:1.
as the plant materials consumed and nitrogen is immobilized to meet the metabolic demands of the decomposers, the C:N will decline.
as decomposing continues and the carbon quility declines (cuz of lignin) the minerilization rate exceed the immobilization rate
the result is the net release of of nitrogen to the soil
How does nutrient cycling differ between terrestrial and aquatic systems? How are the nutrients from the water body floor eventually brought up to the surface?
it is similar Aquatic invertebrates
• Shredders fragment organic particles; eat bacteria and fungi on the litter
• down stream Filtering and gathering collectors filter fine particles and fecal material of the shredders
• Grazers and scrapers feed on material
collecting on rocks
thermocline functions turnover brings nutrients from the bottom to the top also mixing of the water column
Explain the forces behind the way the ocean currents move (conveyer belt cycling from ch. 3). Discuss how this cycle influences the distribution of nutrients?
Cold, salty water is dense and sinks to the bottom of the ocean while warm water is less dense and rises to the surface.warm water from the Gulf Stream heats the atmosphere in the cold northern latitudes. This loss of heat to the atmosphere makes the water cooler and denser, causing it to sink to the bottom of the ocean. As more warm water is transported north, the cooler water sinks and moves south to make room for the incoming warm water. This cold bottom water flows south of the equator all the way down to Antarctica. Eventually, the cold bottom waters are able to warm and rise to the surface, continuing the conveyor belt that encircles the globe.
as surface currents currents move waters away from the western margins deep water moves to the surface carrying nutrients with it
Name, define, and give an example of the two types of biogeochemical cycles. What element uses a hybrid of both?
gaseous cycle comes from atmosphere oxygen, carbon and nitrogen cycles sedimentary cycle comes from earth crust sulfur and phosphorus cycle hybrid is the sulfur cycle both earth and atmosphere
In the temperate zone is the concentration of carbon dioxide higher during the day or night? Why?
At night when respiration increases
What are the inputs and outputs of carbon in terrestrial and aquatic systems? Include the additional carbon sink discussed with aquatic systems.
- Input: photosynthesis (GPP), deposition (minor)
- Outputs: respiration (Ra),decomposition (Rh)combustion (fire)
- Inputs: photosynthesis, diffusion (from atmosphere), transport (currents, streams, etc)
- Outputs: respiration, decomposition, diffusion (to atmosphere)
- Carbonates are incorporated into exoskeletons (shells) of
aquatic organisms and deposited in sediments
"Sink": place where carbon is accumulating
ocean is the biggest sink
What are the two inorganic forms of nitrogen that are available to plants
- Nitrate (NO3)
What are three ways that nitrogen enters the ecosystem
- Atmospheric deposition
Lightning transforms gaseous
- Biological N fixation Cyanobacteria & symbiotic bacteria living in mutualistic associations with plants
What are the four main contributors to the way that biomes form
• Climate patterns
• Soil type
• Disturbance regime (frequency, intensity)
How does the warm, wet environment of the tropical rain forest influence rates of NPP and decomposition?
Influence of NPP= productivity is influenced by climate, moreover temperature and precipitation. temperature influences photosynthesis rate and the amount of available water limits photosynthesis and the amount of leaves that can be supported. warm wet condition such as tropical rain forest are the most productive.
decomposition- macro and micro decomposer are influenced by physical environment temperature and moister influence microable activity. with the highest activity results in warm, wet condition such as the tropical rain forest.
What features of regional climate lead to the formation of desert ecosystems?
deserts result from from dry descending air masses, rain shadows of coastal mountain ranges, and remoteness from oceanic moister.
Match physical characteristic to either headwaters, mid-reaches, and large rivers
• Low nutrients
• Higher gradien
• More open
• Higher nutrients
• Still some shade
• Periphyton production
• Complex substrata
• Wide open to solar radiation
• Much Higher nutrients
• Complex backwater habitats
• Phytoplankton production
• Fine, shifting substrata
How does succession in flowing water differ from terrestrial succession
it is known that succession in freshwater ecosystems, such as lakes and streams, happens when a disturbance occurs that results in the aquatic area filling with sediment or organic matter.
Common disturbances that result in freshwater succession are floods, droughts, erosion and the construction of dams. These types of disturbances often cause land around the freshwater ecosystem to erode and sediment settles into the water. Disturbances can also cause organisms in the water to die, and the organic matter then settles to the bottom of the water.
During succession of a freshwater ecosystem, eventually the sediment or organic matter builds up and the dynamics of the ecosystem begin to change. In many cases, the freshwater ecosystem fills with so much sediment that the shoreline advances to the center of the water and aquatic area is replaced with a semi-aquatic or a terrestrial environment
Why is disturbance important to different stream sizes
flushing of sediment
Distinguish between oligotrophy, eutrophy, and dystrophy
oligotrophy- condition of being poor in nutrients
eutrophy- being rich in nutrients
dystrophy- ill nourished
What environmental stresses are organisms living in the rocky intertidal zone subjected to
constant changes in the physical environment:
What influences the major structural features (zonation) of a salt marsh
Salt marsh structure is
determined by tides and
What are the three classes of hydrophytic plants
obligate wetland plants
examples pond weed, lily,
facultative wetland plants
cottonwoods and alders
occasional wet land plants
What is hydroperiod and how does it relate to the structure of wetlands
Hydroperiod involves duration,
frequency, depth, and season of
•Hydroperiod influences plant
composition because it affects
germination, survival, and mortality
at various stages of the plants' life
The importance of biodiversity can be grouped into three categories. Name and discuss them.
Economic- The economic argument is based largely on self-interest:
• Drug or pharmaceutical
• Fiber: Clothing, paper, wood
• Specialty products: rubber, solvents
Evolutionary-the extinction of modern-day
species limits the potential
evolution of species diversity in
Ethical-Humans should be stewards of the earth.
With more ability comes more
Why do humans have more right to
habitat, livelihood, etc. than other
What is the primary cause of species extinction?
What are some examples of large scale habitat destruction?
Expansion of agricultural
Why are invasive species so successful? Be specific, give an example.
they are freed from the constraints, of their native competitors,
the mongoose in Hawaii has no natural predators such jackals and snakes
what environmental conditions create "hotspots"? Why are some areas more diverse then others?
Hotspots: regions of unusually high diversity
To qualify, a region must support >1500 endemic plant species &
have lost >70% of its original habitat
Plant diversity is the biological basis for hotspot designation
The 25 designated hotspots contain:
• 44% of all plant species
• 35% of all terrestrial vertebrate species
• only 1.4% of the planet's land area
How does the physical change of the water structure affect the level of the water?
warmer in the water will effect convery belt cycling by have more warm water than cool which will cause a rise in the tides
What are the two main causes of increasing CO2 in our atmosphere
How does increasing CO2 concentrations around stands of trees affect the amount of carbon storage in different portions of the plant and overall.
What are the direct and indirect effects of climate change on human health
- Increased heat stress, asthma, cardiovascular and
- Increased incidence of communicable diseases,
increased mortality/injury due to increased
natural disasters, changes in diet/nutrition
Name and describe the two major food chains within any ecosystem
Grazing living plant biomass
Detrital dead organic matter or detritus
What are the 4 fates of plant mass energy when consumed
1. Passes from the body as waste products
4. Secondary production: growth and reproduction of consumers
What are the 5 controls of GPP and how do they relate to GPP
- Leaf Area Index (LAI) Higher LAI higher total light absorption.
- Nutrient availability (esp. N, P). Plants need nutrients to build the enzymes, tissues, etc. needed for photosynthesis & growth.
- Water availability. Trade-off between CO2 gain and water loss.
o Growing season length (more intercepted light)
o Enzymes work faster under warmer temperatures (Q10)—to a point
o Little GPP below freezing—difficult to use and transport water
- Atmospheric CO2: Needed for photosynthesis. Becoming more abundant from fossil fuel burning
What are the 4 controls on R?
- Total Live Biomass: all living plant tissue respires, whether it photosynthesizes or not.
- Growth rate: growing new cells requires energy
- Temperature: more respiration for maintenance is required as temp. increases
- Plant chemistry: structural, defensive, and storage tissues are costly to construct
What are 4 factors that influence NPP
A. Soil Resources
B. Temperature (hot or cold)
C. Water stress (atmospheric)
D. Plant chemistry
How does water and nutrient stress on plants influence their resource allocation and how does this translate to their NPP?
energy fixed fixed in plants is allocated to different parts to the plant and to reproduction. how much is allocated is a function of plant life form and environmental conditions.
the pattern of allocation will directly influence standing biomass and productivity rate
ow does GPP and Ra vary with depth of water in aquatic systems. Draw a graph, explain what this means for the aquatic organisms at the deeper depths.
- Photosynthesis (GPP) decreases with depth as light availability decreases, but Ra (respiration) is relatively constant with depth.