Block 1 Anatomy

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what joints are joined by fibrous tissue and permit little movement
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Terms in this set (159)
synovial joint which allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotationball and socket joint (ex: shoulder)controls and integrates body cavities; elicits change based on stimulipurpose of the nervous systemspinal and cranial nerves and their subsequent branchesperipheral nervous systembrain and spinal cordcentral nervous systemsensory and motor innervation to all body parts except visceral, smooth muscle and glandssomatic nervous systemvisceral nervous system which innervated smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandsautonomic nervous systemcarry impulses toward the cell body of a neurondendritecarry impulses away from the cell body of a neuronaxonmyelinating cell of the peripheral nervous systemSchwann cellmyelinating cell of the central nervous systemoligodendrocyteanterior horn of a typical spinal nerve attaches to the anterior ______ which carries ________ signalsroot; efferentposterior (dorsal) horn of a typical spinal nerve attaches to the posterior ______ which carries ________ signalsroot; afferentspinal roots are ____-directionalunispinal nerves and all of their subsequent branches are _____-directionalbispinal nerves exit throughintervertebral foramenarea of skin supplied by a single spinal nervedermatomearea of skin supplied by a single peripheral nerve (which may consist of multiple spinal nerves)peripheral nerve fieldsite where nerves intermingle and from which a set of multi-segmented peripheral nerves emergenerve plexus (spinal nerves lose their individuality within a nerve plexus)type of reflex in which an afferent neuron directly synapses with and efferent neuronmonosynaptic reflexreflex in which a sensory neuron synapses with an interneuron and then synapses with a motor neuronpolysynaptic reflexwhat are the components of the lymphatic systemlymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymphocytes, lymphoid organslymphatic organ in which stem cells divide and become immuno competentprimary lymphatic organs (ex; thymus and red bone marrow)lymphatic organ where most immune response occurssecondary lymphatic organ (ex: tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes)the primary functions of the lymphatic system are to collect ________ from interstitial space, and _____ the body via the immune systemfluid; protectlymphatic circulation is powered byskeletal muscle movements and respiratory movementsdescribe the flow of lymph from the extracellular spaces to the circulatory systemlymphatic capillaries -> lymphatic vessels -> lymph nodes -> lymph ductswhich terminal lymph duct drains the left part of the head/neck, left upper extremity, left thorax (minus the inferior lobe of the left lung), abdomen, and lower limbsthoracic ductwhich terminal lymph duct drains into the junction b/w the left internal jugular and the left subclavian veinsthoracic ductwhich terminal lymph duct drains the right side of the head/neck, right upper extremity, right thorax, and inferior lobe of the left lungright lymphatic ductwhich terminal lymph duct drains into the junction between the right internal jugular and right subclavian veinsright lymphatic ductcell bodies of the pre-synaptic cells of sympathetic nervous system are located inintermediolateral cell columnssympathetic nervous system has what type of outflowthoracolumbarcell bodies of post-synaptic cells of the sympathetic nervous system are located inparavertebral ganglia or prevertebral gangliathe autonomic nervous system contains only ________ neuronsmotor (efferent)there are no white rami below what spinal levelL3/L4the thoracic cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerve synapses in thesympathetic chain (paravertebral ganglia)the abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves synapse in thepre-vertebral ganglia (go on to innervate the viscera of the abdomen)efferent sympathetic signals enter the sympathetic chain via thewhite rami communicantesefferent sympathetic signals exit the sympathetic chain via thegray rami communicantes or splanchnic nervessomatic motor innervation is usually achieved using ________ neuron(s)onesomatic nerves innervateskeletal musclevisceral sensation that reaches the conscious level is generally perceived as ______paincharacteristics of visceral paindull, poorly localized, aching/crampingpain from visceral structures stimulated by injury (mechanical, thermal, or chemical insults)nocioceptive visceral painvisceral afferent signals which enter the spinal cord at the same level as somatic afferent signals and are misinterpreted by the CNS are the basis for what?referred painparasympathetic nervous system has what type of outflowcraniosacralparasympathetic signals synapse inintramural gangliapreganglionic parasympathetic signals travel inpelvic splanchnic nervesgeneral visceral afferent fibers enter CNS atthe level of the general visceral efferent exitthoracic vertebrae have ______ oriented facets and facilitate _______ movementcoronally; trunk rotationlumbar vertebrae have ____ oriented facets and facilitate ____ movementsagitally; flexion/extensionthoracic vertebrae provide attachment sites forribswhat bony feature is characteristic of lumbar vertebraemammillary processesdegenerative changes of the spine on x-ray such as bone spurs and loss of vertebral body heightspondylosisdefect or fracture of the pars interarticularis without displacementspondylolysis (scotty dog is wearing a collar)sliding of one vertebrae on another commonly caused by degenerative changesspondylolithesis (scotty dog's head is decapitated)where is CSF locatedsubarachnoid space (space b/w arachnoid and pia mater)the greater occipital nerve emerges inferior to ______ and pierces through the ______obliquus capitis inferior; semispinalisventral, lateral, and dorsal horns and sympathetic chan ganglia contain ____ neuronsmultipolardorsal root ganglia contains ______ neuronsunipolar or pseudounipolarlateral horns of the spinal cord exist ONLY in spinal levelsT1-L2 and S2-S4the dorsal root ganglia contain what type of cell bodiesSENSORYsomatic afferent cells whose bodies are within the dorsal root ganglia areunipolar or pseudounipolarlordosis is a _______ curvature which develops ________SECONDARY; POST-NATALLYIV discs are composed of outer ________ and inner __________annulus fibrosis; nucleus pulposisthe nucleus pulposis is a remnant of thenotochorda disc herniation at L4/L5 would compress which spinal nerveL5 (due to more oblique descending of the fifth lumbar root)the head of a rib will articulate with the ______ costal facet of its same numbered thoracic vertebral body, and the ______ costal facet of the vertebral body just above itsuperior; inferiorthe tubercle of the rib will articulate with the _______ on the ______ numbered thoracic vertebraetransverse costal facet; samethe vertebral artery is a branch of the ____ and runs within the ______ of the cervical vertebraesubclavian; transversethe conus medularis appears at which spinal levelL1/L2the superior appendicular skeleton articulates with the axial skeleton via thesternoclavicular jointthe glenohumeral joint is weakest on what aspect?inferiortearing of the acromioclavicular joint causesshoulder separationinflammation or irritation of the bursabursitisthe inferior weakness of the glenohumeral joint makes it prone to _______ with excessive extension and lateral rotationdislocationthe sternoclavicular joint is a ____ joint but functions as a ____ jointsaddle; ball and socketelevated medial fragment and depressed lateral fragment is the common clinical presentation of what pathologyfractured claviclethe pectoralis minor creates a bridge over the ___ and ____ passing in the axillavessels and nervesa lesion of the long thoracic nerve causes the clinical presentation of awinged scapulawhat are the muscles of the rotator cuffsupraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularisinjury to this structure is often caused by repeated overhead motionrotator cuff injuriescontents of the triangular spacecircumflex scapular arteryborders of the triangular spaceteres minor, teres major, long head of triceps brachiicontents of the quadrangular spaceaxillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral arteryborders of the quadrangular spaceteres minor, long head of triceps brachii, teres major (bottom), humeruscontents of the triangular intervalradial nerve and profunda brachii arteryborders of the triangular intervalteres major (top), long head of triceps brachii, humeruswhat are the arteries of the scapulasuprascapular artery, circumflex scapular artery, dorsal scapular arterycontents of the scapular notchsuprascapular artery and suprascapular nerve (separated by the superior transverse ligament)compression of the brachial plexus causesneurogenic thoracic outlet syndromedisease where the arteries and veins of the axilla are compressedvascular thoracic outlet syndromechronic pain in the axilla but a specific cause cannot be determinednonspecific thoracic outlet syndromedisorder where the patient presents with loss of abduction, elbow flexion, and lateral rotation of the humerus (waiter's tip); caused during delivery or by traumainjury to superior trunk (C5, C6) (Erb Duchenne Palsy)disorder in which a patient will present with a "claw hand" caused by injury or pulling a newborn from the birth canal by the arminjury to C8 and T1 (Klumpkes Palsy) (injurs the ulnar nerve and part of the median nerve)branches from the first segment of the axillary arterysuperior thoracic arterybranches from the second part of the axillary arterythoracoacromial artery and lateral thoracic arterybranches of the thoracoacromial arterypectoral, clavicular, acromial, deltoidbranches of the third part of the axillary arterysubscapular, anterior circumflex humeral artery, posterior circumflex humeral arterybranches of the subscapular arterythoracodorsal and circumflex scapular arteryborders of the axillaapex (clavicle, scapula, 1st rib), base (skin), 4 walls (anterior, posterior, medial, lateral)the radiocarpal joint is what type of jointcondyloidthe radius articulates with which two carpal bonesscaphoid and lunatedistal radioulnar joint is what type of jointpivotcarpometacarpal joints of digits 2-5 are what type of jointplane type jointscarpometacarpal joint of the thumb is what type of jointsaddle joint (important is opposition of the thumb)metacarpophalangeal joints are what type of jointscondyloid (permits movement in two planes)interphalangeal joints are what type of jointhingewhat forms the hood of the carpal tunnelflexor retinaculumwhat are the contents of the carpal tunneltendons of flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundes, tendon of flexor pollicis longus, median nervefloor of the carpal tunnel is formed bythe carpal bonesclinical condition in which a lesion or inflammation compresses the median nerve and causes numbness and tingling in the handcarpal tunnel syndromecontents of the anatomical snuff boxbranch of radial artery and superficial branch of the radial nervefloor of the anatomical snuffbox is formed by whatscaphoid and trapezium boneswalls of the anatomical snuffboxtendons of extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevisclinical condition in which the patient presents with hyperextension of 4th and 5th metacarpophalangeal joints, and flexion at PIPS and DIPS (ulnar claw hand)lesion to superior trunkclinical condition in which patient presents with loss of opposition of the thumb, loss of fine control movements of the 2nd and 3rd digits, and can be caused by a wrist lacerationmedian nerve injurydamage/injury to the axillary nerve causes whatdeltoid atrophy (decreased shoulder contour)cauda equina are what type of structuredorsal and ventral rootsarterial supply to the thoracic wallinternal thoracic artery (branch of the subclavian), posterior intercostal arteries (arise directly from the thoracic aorta)when placing a chest tube between the 5th and 6th intercostal space, which edge of which rib should you glide the tube alongthe superior edge of rib 6 (avoids neurovascular bundle)where should a chest tube be placedbetween the 5th and 6th intercostal spaces at the midaxillary linethe visceral pleura is innervated by whatGVAthe parietal pleura is innervated by whatGSAthe pleural cavity is lined by what two layersthe visceral and parietal pleurathe parietal pericardium is fused to thefibrous pericardiumwhat are the three layers of the pericardiumfibrous (most external), parietal (middle), visceral (most internal)the parietal and visceral pericardium comprise theserous pericardiumspace between the parietal and visceral pericardiumpericardial cavitybranches of the left coronary arteryanterior interventricular branch, circumflex branchbranches of the right coronary arterysinoatrial branch, marginal branch, posterior interventricular brancha "left dominant" or "right dominant" heart is based off ofwhich coronary artery gives off the posterior interventricular branchmajor veins of the heartsmall cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein, coronary sinusthe great cardiac vein runs in theanterior interventricular groove with the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary arterythe middle cardiac vein runs in theposterior interventricular groove with the posterior interventricular branch of the right coronary arterythe coronary sinus empties into theright atriumthe coronary arteries are direct branches of theaortathe bicuspid valve is also known as the ________ valve and separates the ____ and the ______mitral; left atrium; left ventriclethe atrioventricular valves have __ and __papillary muscles and chordae tendonaedo the AV valves open actively or passivelypassivelysmooth walled portion of the left atriumsinus venarumstructure that transmits electrical impulses to the papillary musclesseptomarginal trabecula (located in the right ventricle)smooth region of the right ventricleconus arteriosisinternal groove which separtes the rough area of pectinate muscles with the smooth walled sinus venarum in the right atriumcrista terminalessmall layer of squamous cells on the inside of the myocardium used to reduce turbulent flowendocardiumwhat cardiac structure serves to keep the valves from overextending, provide attachments for the myocardium, and acts as an insulator for the heart's electrical systemcardiac skeletonstructures which connect the the SA node to the AV nodepurkinje fibersfailure or a valve to fully openstenosisfailure of a valve to fully closeregurgitation