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Criminal Justice Final
Terms in this set (80)
• Why are baby girls more likely than baby boys to die in China?
less medical attention and care
• What was the effect of rules in China and India banning the use of sonograms to determine the sex of the fetus?
more daughters die as infants if they are not aborted
• Whas has been the economic effect of women entering the workforce in Asia?
most effective antipoverty program
• What is the "girl effect"?
Government investment to reduce gender inequality and make money. Educate girls, delay marriage, provide education, boost national savings rate.
• Why do some believe there are so many Muslim terrorists?
They have a lack of female participation in the economy and society of Islam. Violence is number 1 tool.
• In India how do brothel owners feel when one of the prostitutes becomes pregnant?
They have a chance to breed a new generation of victims. Abortions. Girls=prostitutes and Boys =servants.
• Why don't girls who escape the brothels go to the police
Police regularly visit for free, mock, and return girls to brothels.
• How does the size of the modern slave trade compare with that of the slave trade from Africa to America in the early years of our country?
Sex trafficking outnumbers slavery by millions. Only 80,000 Africans vs. 800,000 sex slaves.
• What are some of the reasons for the growth of sex slavery in modern times?
Collapse of communism, globalization, and AIDS.
• How was the woman Meena finally able to rescue her daughter Naina from a brothel?
Apne Aap and police raid in Bihar. "Crackdowns"
• What did a group of students from a school in the state of Washington do to help children in Cambodia? What was the result of their efforts?
They educated rural children by raising money and building a school. Provided internet and email. Sent people to teach over break. "Girls Be Ambitious"
• In India how does official concern about the trafficking of young girls into prostitution compare with official concern about pirated DVDs?
DVD's are more important than girls. "There is nothing you can do for peasant girls from other countries"
• Are Western men a major part of the problem of forced prostitution in Asia?
No, men in Asia are major part of the problem
• What is a "harm reduction" approach to prostitution?
Legalize and regulate by checking brothels. Allows health care workers to pass condoms and curb AIDS. Book is not in favor of harm reduction.
• What do the authors believe is the best way to respond to prostitution?
Crackdowns with social services such as job training and drug rehab.
• What is the Sonagachi Project and how well do the authors believe it works?
World Health Organization legalized and regulated by encouraging condom use.
• What is the difference between Sweden and the Netherlands in their approach to prostitution?
Sweden- crackdown for buying sex (not selling)
Netherlands- legalize and regulate (increase in STD)
• Which of the two countries' approaches do the authors feel is better?
• What has been the impact of the annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report required by Congress?
Some countries pass new laws to reduce crackdown problem of trafficking. Some attempt on stopping forced prostitution.
• What do the authors learn when they purchased two young sex slaves and gave them freedom?
1. Some will return willingly
2. Girls can be bought for $250
3. Easier to prevent problems
• What is one of the best ways to get women to speak up in their defense?
Educate and empower
• A local gangster in the Indian city of Kasturba Nagor terrorized citizens for years. What eventually happened to him?
Cut off his penis and stabbed to death by 100 women in court room.
• What eventually happened to Usha Narayane, who had stood up to the gangster?
Stood up to Nagor and now national women's leader
• How well have women been represented among social entrepreneurs?
Women do really well as social entrepreneurs. New way of doing something and fighting for justice in the community.
• What is the purpose of Sunitha Krishnan's organization Prajwala?
Trains prostitutes and provides services to children.
• Worldwide, most women ages 15-44 die from what?
• What is Rapex and how does it work?
Tube put in like a tampon. Barbs inside and must go to the ER.
• Why would a man in Ethiopia rape a woman he would like to marry?
Ethiopian law says you cannot be prosecuted for crime against wife. If a man has his eyes on a girl, no bride price, and family does except him, he will kidnap and rape her.
• What does the organization Equality Now do?
A New York organization that tackles women abuse around the world and provides campaigns.
• Worldwide, what kinds of mistreatments of women are carried out by other women?
Mothers are more likely to kill children, support wife beating, and sexual violence.
• What often happens to women who have been raped in Pakistan?
They commit suicide known as "Honor Suicide"
• What did Mulchtar do after she was raped?
Mulchtar received money from the government and built a school with the money.
• What does the Old Testament say should happen to a woman who is not a virgin when she gets married?
The Old Testament says you should be stoned to death.
• Where in the world do most honor killings occur each year?
Muslim world, especially Pakistan.
• What is "honor rape" and why is it carried out?
Honor rape is rape intended to disgrace entire clan. It is a tool of war and used in Rwanda as ethnic cleansing, eliminate tribe, and genocide.
• What country do the authors call the world capital of rape?
Congo is the world capital of rape.
• What do the authors think about young American girls doing study abroad in countries such as the Congo?
It is more dangerous to be a women than an armed soldier in study abroad countries.
• What is HEAL Africa?
HEAL is a hospital that fixed fistulas in Africa.
• What happened to the young girl Mahabouba Muhammad?
Mahabouba was a young girl in Ethiopia where her baby got stuck in her cervix and rotted to death. They said she was cursed and a fistula formed. She lost control of her body and the Monastery helped her.
• What are fistulas and what often happens to women in the poorest countries of Africa who have fistulas?
Fistulas are holes in the uterine lining that lead to infection, loss of bowel and bladder functioning, and sores on legs.
• In the opinion of the authors why does maternal health get so little attention around the world?
Stimatizes women's issues and their three strikes (female, poor, rural). People don't care about impoverished areas.
• How has the number of women around the world who die in pregnancy or childbirth changed over time?
Childbirth is as deadly as ever today. One women dies every minute.
• What is the safest country in the world for a woman to give birth?
Ireland is the safest place to give birth in the world.
• How has the gap between rich and poor countries in the maternal death rate changed over time?
The gap is getting wider between poor and rich countries. There is a 1,000% chance of dying in a poor country compared to rich.
• How does the way a problem is described effect the willingness of people to contribute to the cause?
People are more willing to get involved with an individuals story instead of facts on the entire country or group.
• What is the effect of giving school girls in Africa uniforms for school?
Uniforms delay marriage and prevent promiscuity.
• What are some of the reasons why women die in childbirth?
Biology, lack of schooling, lack of healthcare, disregard for women.
• Does poverty completely explain maternal death rates?
No. Investment in healthcare and aids such as midwives.
• What do the authors think about having people who are not medical doctors do surgeries on women?
They think it is a good idea. Midwives with the right training can perform C-sections and save lives.
• Is maternal health care a good economic investment?
No. It is really expensive (15 billion dollars) and no return on investments.
• Why are 6 of the 10 richest self-made women in the world Chinese women?
China has an equal playing field and access to industry. They model gender roles.
• What does the Chinese name, Laidi translate to?
Laidi translates into bring a younger brother.
• What are the likely outcomes of the 116 boys for every 100 girls in China?
Some men will not be able to marry and will be unstable.
• According to your text, should the West be denouncing sweatshops in China?
The west should not be denouncing sweatships in China. They should be encouraging manufacturing in other countries (Asia and Muslim countries) and give women a boost.
• What did Claudine think she could not be pregnant by her rapist?
Claudine was told she could only become pregnant if she was kissed on the cheek and she had never been kissed.
• Why do your authors argue that Women for Women International effective?
Women for Women is effective because they are taught to save, learn trades, touches people at grassroots level, money goes from women to other women.
• How often does genital cutting occur?
Genital cutting occurs once every 10 seconds.
• What is the aim of genital cutting?
(Mostly by Muslims in Africa) Culturistic idea, minimize sexual pleasure, prevent promiscuity.
• What is the danger in calling genital cutting, genital mutilation?
Debate in UN. The term genital mutilation results in the increase of practice. The term genital cutting results in a decrease of the practice.
• What happened to Tostan's model?
Tostan's model encouraged villagers to end cutting by discussing rights with community members. Only program with results and was the national model. Tostan was also cost effective.
• What is Girls Learn set up to do?
Girls Learn raised money for girls education abroad and created exchanges while building movement at home.
• What is the unfortunate reality of women's issues?
Women's issues are marginalized and focuses on humanitarian concerns. No one cares.
• What things can be learned about the abolition of slavery?
The abolition of slavery showed that you had to be honest, get everyone involved, enlighten politicians, vulgarity. Domestic have to stand up and speak.
• Why do you're your authors argue that women are the third world's greatest under-utilized resource?
Women are the thirld world's greatest resource because they preform better, easy to train, and are able to curb population growth.
• What the principle a movement should adhere to?
Connections with liberal and conservative parties. No exaggeration. Men need to be circumcised to reduce AIDS and other STIs.
• What are the four initiatives that your authors describe as most important?
1. $10 Billion for girls education
2. US sponsor iodizing salt
3. $1.6 Billion and 12 years to eradicate OB fistula
4. Aware of global gender and faith. Get others involved.
Public health and social costs of human trafficking
1. Human Rights Dimension- violates life, liberty, and happiness. Children should be free from abuse.
2. Promoting Social Breakdown- tears apart lives, children removed from parents. No education.
3. Fueling Organized Crime- Human trafficking generates an estimated $9.5 billion. Profits government.
4. Depriving Countries of Human Capital and Inhibiting Development- trafficking has disastrous impact on labor markets
5. Public Health Costs- physical, sexual, psychological,trauma affecting future generations
6. Eroding government authority- inability of government to protect women and children
Taken from one country to another. 600, 000-800,000 trafficked each year. 80% women, 50% children.
Influence of the West on trafficking
Girls are trafficked into the US from China, Mexico, Honduras, India, and Vietnam. 50,000 girls a year into the US. US citizens visit countries to engage in sex (25%).
Recruiting trafficking victims
Commercial sex exploitation is most common trafficking reason. Vulnerable, target young women and children, trick- promises of marriage, employment, educational opportunities, or a better life.
Causes of Trafficking.
Demand- pimps(employers) and johns (exploiters).
Poverty- increased poverty where women and children are expendable.
Internet- 1/2 searches are for sex.
Government- 2-14% of gross product in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippians, and Thailand derives from sex tourism
Gandhi's life and impact
Gandhi left South Asia and wrote a book condemning Great Britain. Refused invite to lead civil rights movement in US. Toured India to visit poor. Against Britain oppressing Indians and massacre. Salt March against British Salt Tax. Assassinated.
*Spent more time in jail then out
Civil Disobedience; Educating the Public; Success of Civil Disobedience
Lasting change, India's freedom, Civil Rights Movement, current activist issues
Coffee- one day of coffee sales at McDonalds
Guerilla Tactics (Sal Alinsky)
Guerilla Tactics were unconventional and radical. Kodak was not equal with their pay and helped unionize middle and working class.
Busted film and civil liberties
Saving Face: Zakia
Zakia went to court and won the case. She gets surgery and her husband got two life sentences.
Saving Face: Ruthsana
Ruthsana just had a baby boy and got offered surgery when she recovers.
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