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Animal Unit Review: Part 2
Terms in this set (57)
What are the basic characteristics of fish?
Aquatic vertebrates with paired fins, scales, and gills.
What are the basic functions of fins, scales, and gills?
Fins = movement, scales = protection, gills = exchanging gases.
Understand spawning, oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous.
Spawning: external mating. Oviparous: fishes whose eggs hatch outside the mother's body. Ovoviviparous: eggs stay inside a mother's body after internal fertilization and obtain substances from material in the egg. Viviparous: embryos stay in the mother's body after internal fertilization, but they obtain necessary substances from the mother's body; born alive.
What does ectothermic mean?
Body temperature is influenced by temperature of the surrounding environment.
What is a swim bladder?
An internal, gas-filled organ that adjusts the buoyancy of bony fishes.
What is a lateral line?
Sensitive receptors that can detect gentle currents and vibrations.
Give characteristics of Hagfish.
Mucus-covered, live in depths of ocean, prehistoric, scavengers, jawless, short tentacles around mouth, rasping tongue, slimy, open circulatory system.
Give characteristics of Lampreys.
Filter feeders, parasites, short tentacles around mouth, rasping tooth-like structures, salt and freshwater.
Give characteristics of cartilaginous fish.
Jaws and fins, endoskeleton of cartilage, mostly marine, gill slits, tough small scales with spines.
Give characteristics of bony fish.
Bony endoskeleton, fresh and saltwater, gills with operculum, paired fins, swim bladder.
What is an amphibian?
A vertebrate that live in water as larva and on land as adults, breathes with lungs as an adult, has moist skin with mucus glands, and lacks scales and claws.
How are amphibians adapted for life on land?
Strong limb bones(efficient movement), lungs and breathing tubes (breathe air), bony shield for sternum (supports and protects internal organs).
How many heart chambers does an amphibian have?
Describe respiration in amphibians.
Gas exchange occurs in gills and skin. Lungs replace gills when an amphibian matures, but gas exchange continues through skin and lining of mouth cavity.
What is a nictitating membrane?
Movable, transparent membrane that protects the surface of the eye from damage under water and keeps eyes moist on land.
What is a tympanic membrane?
"Eardrums" on side of the head, which vibrates in response to sound.
Understand metamorphosis, amplexus, and cloaca.
Metamorphosis: the transformation between young and mature stages. Amplexus: the mating position of frogs/toads, where eggs are shed and fertilized in the water. Cloaca: muscular cavity at the end of large intestine through which digestive wastes, urine, eggs/sperm leave the body.
What does the word amphibian mean?
Give characteristics of Salamanders & Newts.
Tails as adults, carnivorous, usually four-legged, aquatic as larvae and terrestrial as adults, live in moist wood.
Give characteristics of Frogs & Toads.
Lack tail, aquatic larvae called "tadpole," well-developed hind legs for jumping.
Give characteristics of Caecilians.
Worm-like, lack legs, carnivorous, terrestrial burrowers, some have fish-like scales.
Give characteristics of reptiles.
Internal fertilization, amniotic eggs, lungs, ectothermic, dry scaly skin.
How are reptiles adapted to life on land?
Reptile's body covering helps prevent loss of water for dry environments.
How do reptiles breathe?
Lungs and three-chambered heart.
What is a Jacobson's Organ?
The tongue's receptors pick up scent and chemicals. Then, the tongue is stuck back into the Jacobson's organ which turns the odor into electrical signals, which travel along the nerve to the brain (which tells the snake what it's smelling).
How do reptiles reproduce?
What are the structures/functions of an amniotic egg?
Chorion regulates exchange of O2 & CO2 from surface of egg to embryo, allantoise stores waste produced by embryo, amnion is a fluid-filled membrane that cushions the embryo to prevent dehydration, yolk sac contains the yolk (nutrient-rich main food supply for embryo).
Give the characteristics for Tuataras.
Lack internal ears, primitive scales, found only in NZ, only one species.
Give the characteristics of Lizards & Snakes.
Mostly carnivorous, mostly terrestrial, lizards have legs and snakes don't.
Give the characteristics of Crocodilians.
Carnivorous, aquatic/semiaquatic, four-chambered heart.
Give the characteristics of Turtles & Tortoises.
Bony shell, ribs and vertebrate fused to upper part of shell, some terrestrial, aquatic/semiaquatic, all lay eggs on land.
What are the similarities & differences b/t pit vipers and coral snakes?
Both venomous. Pit vipers: heat-sensing pits and hemotoxic venom. Coral snakes: small fangs and neurotoxic venom.
Which venomous snakes of TX are pit vipers?
Rattle snakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths.
Understand venom, poison, hemotoxic, and neurotoxic.
Venom: injected toxin. Poison: digested toxin. Hemotoxic: venom that affects red blood cells and blood vessels. Neurotoxic: venom that affects nervous system.
Give characteristics of birds.
Maintain constant internal body temp, outer covering of feathers, two legs covered w/scales and used for walking or perching, and front limbs modified into wings.
How are birds adapted for flight?
Highly efficient digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems; aerodynamic feathers and wings; strong, lightweight bones; strong chest muscles.
What is unusual about the skeletal system of birds?
Bones are thin, hollow, and lightweight. Sternum is enlarged for attachment of flight muscles.
What is unusual about the respiratory system of birds?
When it inhales, air enters large posterior air sacs in body cavity and bones, and travels through the lungs via small tubes, lined with specialized tissue for gas exchange. This ensures that air flows into the air sacs and out through the lungs in one direction, constantly exposing the lungs to oxygen-rich air (helps them maintain their high metabolic rate and allow them to fly at high altitudes and with large amounts of energy).
What is unusual about the digestive system of birds?
No teeth, so have crop (stores and moistens food, may produce fat-protein substance for feeding young), stomach, and gizzard (muscular organ that grinds food with small pieces of swallowed gravel), then wastes leave through cloaca.
What does the term endothermic mean?
Capable of maintaining and producing body heat internally.
Describe the diversity of birds.
30 different orders. Largest order: passerines (perching birds), with songbirds.
What is Archaeopteryx?
First birdlike fossil ever discovered, from Jurassic Period 150M years ago. Looked like a small running dinosaur, but it had well-developed feathers. Also had teeth in its beak, bony tail, and toes and claws on its wings. Considered a transitional species.
Give the characteristics of mammals.
Have internal fertilization, have lungs, four-chambered heart, endothermic, hair and subcutaneous fat, mammary glands.
How do mammals maintain homeostasis?
Regulate body heat via sweat/panting.
What are the functions of mammal teeth?
Canines are pointed teeth for gripping, ripping, and tearing. Incisors are chisel-like teeth used for cutting, gnawing, and grooming. Molars crush and grind food.
What is the function of a rumen?
Stomach chamber that contains symbiotic bacteria that digest cellulose.
What is the function of a diaphragm?
Powerful muscle that pulls the bottom of the chest cavity downward and increases volume.
Understand the function of a four-chambered heart.
Pumps blood into two different circuits in the body. The right side receives oxygen-poor blood and pumps it to the lungs, and the left side receives oxygen-rich blood and pumps it to the rest of the body.
How do mammals reproduce?
Understand the interrelationships of organ systems.
Circulatory transports materials, respiratory ensures that oxygen enters the lungs and that the blood carries oxygen to body cells. Blood carries waste products to kidneys, which remove waste products from body. Nervous carries information to and from organs, skeletal could not grow and maintain itself without calcium and other materials from digestive.
How do the three groups of living mammals differ from one another?
Monotremes lay soft-shelled eggs that incubate outside the body. Marsupials bear live young and complete development in external pouch. Placentals exchange nutrients, O2, CO2, and wastes between the embryo and the placenta.
Describe the orders of mammals.
Review "Mammal" class notes - fourteen orders!
What important function does the control of body temperature serve in chordates?
Compare and contrast ectotherms and endotherms.
Have different methods of controlling body temperature. Ectotherms: low metabolism, lack effective insulation. Endotherms: high metabolism, insulation via hair/fur, can get rid of excess heat, require relatively more food.
What three features are needed to control an animal's body temperature?
A source of heat for the body, a way to conserve that heat, and a method of eliminating excess heat when necessary.
List the organ systems that chordates use to perform life functions.
Digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory.
Compare and contrast the respiratory system of a frog, a gorilla, and a sparrow.
Frogs: water passes over gill filaments and oxygen diffuses into blood in capillaries. Simultaneously, CO2 diffuses from blood into the water. Gorilla: lungs with alveoli (bubble like structures for gas exchange surface area) and two-way breathing system. Sparrow: air flows in only one direction (see Respiratory System in Birds question).