First important magnet to attract people to the west, California gold rush 1849 set the pattern for subsequent mining booms.
Placer Mining: needed only a shovel, washing pan and good claim.
Mining became expensive. Quartz mining required heavy rock crushers. Original California miners were called "Yonder-Siders"
Comstock lode- mine with ore worth 3,876 dollars per ton of gold.
1860's-70's: Idaho, Washington, Nevada, Colorado, Montana, Arizona, and Dakota
Mining Frontier populated portions of west and sped up its political organization (Nevada, Idaho and Montana were granted early state hood because of mining).