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Chem 101 w/ Dr. Cuff SELU
Terms in this set (37)
Chemistry is the study of
the science that seeks to understand what macroscopic matter does by studying what jatos and molecules of matter do
Anything that has mass and occupies space (volume)
involves measurement or description of some aspects or nature
a tentative interpretation the observation
a brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones
are models that explain and give the underlying causes for observations and laws
test that either validate or reject the hypotheses, laws, and or theory
What is the law of conservation of mass?
matter cannot be created or destroyed
who formulated the law of conservation of mass
Multiplication/division rule for significant figures
carry the same number of significant figures as the factor with the fewest significant figures
Addition/subtraction rule for significant figures
he result carry the same number of decimal places as the quantity carrying the fewest decimal places.
is the ratio of its mass to its volume.
What is energy?
energy is the capacity to do work
types of states of matter
solids liquids and gas
Characteristic of a substance displays WITHOUT changing its identity (composition)
Characteristic that a substance displays only through changing its identity (composition).
What is an element?
a Substance that contains only ONE type of atom.
What is a compound?
o Pure substance
o Different atoms are chemically bonded
o Atoms of a compound have a fixed proportion
what is a mixture?
o Not pure
o Different substances not chemically bonded
o Substances have variable proportions.
What is a homogeneous mixture?
a mixture that is the same throughout
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout
What is temperature?
The measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
What are the freezing point of water in°F,°C, andK.
32 degrees F
0 degrees C
What are the boiling point of water in°F,°C, andK.
100 degrees C
What is specific heat capacity?
The amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 degree.
a change in which energy is taken in
a change in which energy is released
who recorded ideas of atoms?
Leucippus and Democritus
Who suggested that if you divide matter into smaller and smaller pieces, you end up with tiny, indestructible particles and called them atomos, or "atoms," meaning "indivisible."
The main points of John Dalton's Atomic Theory are
1. Each element is composed of tiny
indestructible* particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical*.
3. Atoms of different elements have different mass and other properties.
4. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds.
Which English physicist discovered a smaller and more fundamental particle called the electron?
J. J. Thomson
Rutherford's gold foil experiment and the results
Tiny particles called alpha-particles were directed at a thin sheet of gold foil; however, most particles passed though but some deflected at large angles
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